Hoffman Kiln between Aizlewood Road and Cutts Terrace


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1021089

Date first listed: 11-Aug-2003


Ordnance survey map of Hoffman Kiln between Aizlewood Road and Cutts Terrace
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Sheffield (Metropolitan Authority)

National Grid Reference: SK 34922 85030


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

The Hoffman kiln between Aizlewood Road and Cutts Terrace is a particularly well-preserved example. Above ground it retains important structural remains with architectural detail which contributes significantly to the understanding of the physical development and workings of the kiln. Below ground important archaeological deposits will provide information relating to the use and technological development of the kiln. Taken as a whole this information will add to our understanding of the brick industry and its place within the wider industrial landscape.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the standing and buried remains of a Hoffman Kiln, situated in an industrial estate on Aizlewood Road, Sheffield.

In the 19th century production of bricks was limited by the time taken to load, fire and unload the kilns that were then in use. These were known as intermittent kilns which were fired individually as and when they were required. The process was uneconomical as much of the fuel was consumed in bringing the kiln up to firing heat. A technical breakthrough came with the invention of the continuous kiln of which the first successful example was built by the Austrian Fredrich Hoffman in 1857 and patented in 1858.

A Hoffman kiln is divided into bays which are loaded and fired in sequence so that the fire burns continuously and efficiently, the flue gases being directed into the required bay and for the required amount of time. The green clay would be wheeled in on wooden barrows into the kiln bay, the moulds would be stacked up and the access sealed for a week or so. The hot flue gases would then be admitted for the required length of time.

The kiln on Aizlewood Road was built by the Sheffield Patent Brick Company in 1879. It is rectangular in plan with rounded ends and is characteristic of a design developed by Hoffman himself in 1870. The building is built of brick and measures approximately 51m by 20m. It survives to roof height although the chimney has been removed to accommodate the factory unit which now sits above it. Externally it is clear that there were a number of arched openings most of which are now blocked. Two of the openings have been recut to provide modern access to the building. Internally small arched openings representing bays are also evident at various points around the kiln walls. The smoke flues, chamber flues, dampers and the chimney are arranged in a linear pattern running north west to south east down the centre of the building. The flue gases would have been directed from this area to the relevant bay and the smoke expelled via the chimney. The kilns firing chamber is basically `0'-shaped in plan with the central flue system running down its centre. The electricity generator for the factory unit above is housed in one of the central flue chambers.

The corrugated metal built factory unit above the kiln, the attached metal stair cases which provide access to the first floor, the modern ventilation flues attached to and penetrating the kiln and the adjoining metal and breeze block storage units and tanks along the south western side of the monument are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 35609

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Hague, G, 'The Yorkshire Architect' in The Brick Making Industry In Sheffield, , Vol. Jul/Aug, (1981), 38-39

End of official listing