Romano-British farmstead immediately south of Russell Farm


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1021250

Date first listed: 10-Jan-1973

Date of most recent amendment: 03-Sep-2004


Ordnance survey map of Romano-British farmstead immediately south of Russell Farm
© Crown Copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2019. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1021250 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 19-Jan-2019 at 23:13:36.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: South Lakeland (District Authority)

Parish: Burton-in-Kendal

National Grid Reference: SD 54344 76608


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Despite the loss of the north side of the main enclosure and some modern disturbance in the area of some of the small enclosures on the main enclosure's west side, the Romano-British farmstead immediately south of Russell Farm survives in relatively good condition and remains an excellent example of this class of monument.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the upstanding and buried remains of a Romano-British farmstead located on gently sloping ground 70m south of Russell Farm. It includes a large sub-circular stone-walled enclosure which has a number of smaller enclosures on its south and west sides.

The large sub-circular enclosure is formed by a double row of boulders forming a wall approximately 1.6m in width. It has been overlain on its northern side by Russell Farm but its surviving remains measure a maximum of approximately 63m north-south by 43m east-west internally. There is an inturned gateway at the south east side of the enclosure's perimeter wall which is flanked by large boulders. Within the north east part of the enclosure there are a number of large boulders which suggest the site of a possible structure. Flanking the south and west sides of the large sub-circular enclosure is a trackway and south of this there are the remains of three sides of a sub-rectangular stone-walled enclosure with an entrance on its north side off the trackway. Another smaller enclosure is attached to the west side of this sub-rectangular enclosure. A trackway separates these two enclosures from a number of smaller fragmentary stone-walled enclosures on the western side of the main large sub-circular enclosure.

A later iron water pump on the main enclosure's east side is also included within the scheduling.

All modern field boundaries, fences and fenceposts surrounding young trees, telegraph poles and support cables, a watering trough and a manhole and cover are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 35031

Legacy System: RSM


SMR No. 2524, Cumbria SMR, Settlement south of Russell Farm, Burton in Kendal, (1986)
SMR No. 2524, Cumbria SMR, Settlement south of Russell Farm, Burton in Kendal, (1986)

End of official listing