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Lime kilns, associated tramways, structures and other buildings at Llanymynech

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Lime kilns, associated tramways, structures and other buildings at Llanymynech

List entry Number: 1021412

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Powys - Powys

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Carreghofa Community

County:

District: Shropshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Llanymynech and Pant

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 14-Jul-2006

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 36043

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Limestone or chalk has been the basic ingredient for lime mortar from at least Roman times. Since the medieval period, lime has also been used as agricultural fertiliser and, since the early 19th century, widely used in a variety of other industries: as a flux in blast furnaces, in the production of gas and oil, and in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. The lime industry is defined as the processes of preparing and producing lime by burning and slaking. The basic raw material for producing lime is limestone or chalk: when burnt at high temperature (roasted or calcined), these rocks release carbon dioxide, leaving `quicklime' which, by chemical reaction when mixed with water (`slaking'), can be turned into a stable powder - lime. Lime burning sites varied in scale from individual small lime kilns adjacent to a quarry, to large-scale works designed to operate commercially for an extended market and often associated with long distance water or rail transport. Lime burning as an industry displays well-developed regional characteristics, borne out by the regional styles of East Anglia, West Gloucestershire or Derbyshire. The form of kilns used for lime burning evolved throughout the history of the industry, from small intermittent clamp and flare kilns, to large continuously fired draw kilns that could satisfy increased demand from urban development, industrial growth and agricultural improvement. Small-scale rural lime production continued in the later 19th and 20th centuries, but this period of the industry is mainly characterised by large-scale production and the transfer of technologies from the cement and other industries. The demand for mortars grew steadily during the 19th and 20th centuries. The successful production of mortars made with artificial cement represented an economic challenge to lime production and gradually replaced the use of lime mortars in major construction and engineering projects. From a highly selective sample made at national level, around 200 lime industry sites have been defined as being of national importance. These have been defined to represent the industry's chronological depth, technological breadth and regional diversity.



The lime kilns, associated tramways, structures and other buildings at Llanymynech, together with adjacent Welsh quarries, form a particularly well preserved and complete group of structures relating to a once relatively widespread industry. In particular, the Hoffmann kiln represents the best preserved example of its type in England and provides an additional component found on very few other lime processing sites.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a group of lime kilns, associated tramways, structures and other buildings at Llanymynech. This industrial complex extends over part of the south facing slope of Llanymynech Hill which itself has been partly removed by the quarrying activities. Only a small part of the quarry lies within England and in particular only a 170m length of the quarry face forms part of this monument. A larger area of quarry floor complete with small waste dumps and lengths of tramway embankment survives in Wales. On the edge of the quarry are three separate lime kilns. These survive as limestone rubble towers built into the side of the slope and containing two or more bowl shaped brick lined kilns with a circular upper opening and a second draw hole opening in the downslope side. Broken limestone and coal were thrown into the upper openings to form alternate layers, whilst the arched draw hole openings provided the necessary air flow for combustion and access to the finished lime. These kilns were probably constructed in the first half of the 19th century and may have continued in use until they were replaced by the Hoffmann kiln in 1898. The limestone and coal would have been transported to these kilns in wagons carried on a tramway system, much of which still survives as embankments and cuttings. The burnt lime was removed through the draw hole and carried in wagons on a tramway leading either to the canal wharf or railway siding for loading onto barges or trucks. The considerable difference in height between the upper quarry area and the lower dispatch area meant that incline planes were needed to pull the wagons up and down using gravity alone. This was achieved using drum houses, one of which survives within the monument at NGR SJ26672171. The drum house survives as a stone built structure with two 6m long parallel walls 2.2m apart standing to a height of 3.75m. These walls are linked by two lateral timbers and the remains of the braking system still survive. A lean-to attached to the eastern wall of the house would have provided shelter for the operator. The incline plane leading south from the drum house survives as a clearly defined hollow denoted on either side by earthen banks. At the foot of the incline plane the tramway passes under a stone bridge which still carries the public highway between Welshpool and Oswestry. Beyond this the tramway passes a tally hut where the contents of the wagons were recorded before proceeding to the lower lime kilns, canal or railway. This two roomed structure is brick built with a central chimney. Shortly after the tally hut the tramway diverges, with the western branch leading to the canal wharf and large draw kiln, whilst the eastern branch leads to the railway sidings and Hoffmann Kiln. The large draw kiln includes two conjoined continuous single draw limekilns. Both are of limestone rubble construction with brick arched draw holes and the western one stands up to 8.5m high. Immediately north east of these kilns is the large brick built Hoffmann Kiln with its massive 140 foot high brick chimney. The kiln measures 44.8m long by 17.5m wide, stands up to 3.4m high and has 14 chambers which were loaded with limestone through the ground level arches. The interior of the kiln takes the form of two parallel vaulted tunnels built side by side, connected by curved tunnels at either end. The coal to fire the kiln was dropped in through a series of small openings in the roof. The entire structure was covered by a freestanding corrugated iron roof which no longer survives, although at least one stanchion does. The Hoffmann kiln was built around 1898 and would have significantly increased the efficiency of the lime burning operation at Llanymynech. The kiln was finally abandoned when lime burning operations ceased in 1914. Within the limeworks a number of further associated structures are known from documentary and archaeological sources. The most prominent of these is the stable block at NGR SJ26752117 in which horses used to pull the wagons were housed. The building is believed to have been constructed around 1870 and survives as a stone built structure with yellow brick-lined openings and quoins. Its eastern elevation has a central doorway, with matching windows and four ventilation slots, whilst on the north there is a loft opening and three brick ventilation grids. All modern trackway surfaces, protective fences, interpretation markers and boards, benches, timber access stairs and temporary timber supports are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground below them is included. The stone bridge carrying the A483 over the monument is also excluded from the scheduling, although the tramways below the bridge do form part of the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Jones, N W, Llanymynech Heritage Area Archaeological Survey, (2004)
Jones, N W, Llanymynech Heritage Area Archaeological Survey, (2004)
Jones, N W, Llanymynech Heritage Area Archaeological Survey, (2004)
Jones, N W, Llanymynech Heritage Area Archaeological Survey, (2004)

National Grid Reference: SJ 26749 21134

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1021412 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 15-Dec-2017 at 12:53:09.

End of official listing