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War Memorial and War Memorial Garden Terrace

List Entry Summary

This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

Name: War Memorial and War Memorial Garden Terrace

List entry Number: 1051857

Location

War Memorial and War Memorial Garden Terrace, St Peter's Street, Norwich

The building may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Norfolk

District: Norwich

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Non Civil Parish

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: II*

Date first listed: 30-Sep-1983

Date of most recent amendment: 27-Oct-2014

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: LBS

UID: 229590

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Building

Memorial by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Unveiled on 9 October 1927 and subsequently moved in 1938 to the memorial gardens.

Reasons for Designation

The War Memorial and War Memorial Garden Terrace, Norwich is listed at Grade II* for the following principal reasons: * Historic interest: as an eloquent witness to the tragic impacts of world events on this community, and the sacrifices it made in the conflicts of the C20; * Architectural interest: as an exceptional memorial by Sir Edwin Lutyens; * Group value: now faces the Grade II*-listed City Hall; from the front it stands proudly silhouetted against the keep of Norwich Castle (listed at Grade I and scheduled).

History

Norwich made little progress towards setting up a war memorial until Charles Bignold, a member of the founding family of the Norwich Union insurance company, was elected Lord Mayor in 1926. Bignold and his chosen architect Edwin Lutyens selected a site on the east side of the Guildhall on 13 June 1927 and the memorial was quickly completed and unveiled on 9 October, at the cost of £2,700. Lutyens also designed the cupboard for the Roll of Honour which was eventually put on display in Norwich Castle on 13 January 1931.

The memorial was subsequently moved across Gaol Hill to stand above and face the Market Place as an integral part of the Memorial Garden Terrace by C.H. James and S.R. Pierce which was laid out across St Peter’s Street from the newly built City Hall. The gardens were opened by King George IV on 29 October 1938.

The Memorial Garden Terrace was closed in 2004 because of structural problems with the undercroft which supported them, and not reopened until 10 March 2011. During the work, the war memorial was turned to face the City Hall, being rededicated on 11 November 2011. The city arms were re-emblazoned and the gilding reinstated on the flambeaux.

Sir Edwin Lutyens OM RA (1869-1944) was the leading English architect of his generation. Before the First World War his reputation rested on his country houses and his work at New Delhi, but during and after the war he became the pre-eminent architect for war memorials in England, France and the British Empire. While the Cenotaph in Whitehall (London) had the most influence on other war memorials, the Thiepval Arch was the most influential on other forms of architecture. He designed the Stone of Remembrance which was placed in all Imperial War Graves Commission cemeteries and some war memorials in England, including Norwich, and some which he was not otherwise associated with.

Details

WAR MEMORIAL

MATERIALS: Portland stone, bronze flambeaux.

DESCRIPTION: First World War memorial by Sir Edwin Lutyens, 1927. On top of the centre of a low screen wall is a wreath-topped tomb chest, with the carved and painted city arms supported by two angels on the front. Pedestals at either end support gilt bronze flambeaux. Beneath the tomb chest is a Stone of Remembrance.

The memorial is inscribed: front face, central section: OUR GLORIOUS DEAD/ THEIR NAME LIVETH/ FOR EVERMORE/ REMEMBERING ALSO ALL OTHERS OF THIS CITY WHO HAVE GIVEN THEIR LIVES IN THE SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTRY

Front face, left side: 1914/ 1919, with laurel swag beneath

Front face, right side: 1939/ 1945, with laurel swag beneath

THE WAR MEMORIAL GARDEN TERRACE The War Memorial Garden Terrace of 1938 occupies a stepped, sloping terraced site parallel to the principal facade of the City Hall and orientated towards the market square. Seven lamp-posts with bell lights and one later C20 replacement stand at regular intervals either side of the central memorial and coincide with the steps accommodating the sloping site. The lights and flower tubs are on a small plinth behind paving. Metal railing on front of paving to market square side with a slight segmental projection opposite the memorial. Two corner flagpoles with bronze bases depict Peace and Plenty in shallow relief. Steps lead down to the market square at the southern end.

This List entry was subject to a Minor Amendment on 06/11/2014

This List entry has been amended to add sources for War Memorials Online and the War Memorials Register. These sources were not used in the compilation of this List entry but are added here as a guide for further reading, 5 October 2017.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Skelton, T, Gliddon, G, Lutyens and the Great War, (2008), 70-73, 159
Websites
War Memorials Online, accessed 5 October 2017 from https://www.warmemorialsonline.org.uk/memorial/103824
War Memorials Register, accessed 23 January 2017 from http://www.iwm.org.uk/memorials/item/memorial/20223

National Grid Reference: TG 22910 08511

Map

Map
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End of official listing