Lytton Mausoleum in Knebworth Park, including railings

Overview

Heritage Category:
Listed Building
Grade:
II
List Entry Number:
1174579
Date first listed:
27-May-1968
Statutory Address:
Knebworth Park, Kenbworth, SG1 2AX

Map

Ordnance survey map of Lytton Mausoleum in Knebworth Park, including railings
© Crown Copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

Statutory Address:
Knebworth Park, Kenbworth, SG1 2AX

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:
Hertfordshire
District:
North Hertfordshire (District Authority)
Parish:
Knebworth
National Grid Reference:
TL 23165 21137

Details

This list entry was subject to a Minor Enhancement on 01/06/2018

TL 22 SW 3/152

KNEBWORTH Knebworth Park Lytton Mausoleum in Knebworth Park, including railings

(Formerly listed under OLD KNEBWORTH LANE, Old Knebworth)

27.5.68

GV II Mausoleum, 1817, by J B Papworth. Commissioned by Mrs E Bulwer Lytton, for her mother Elizabeth Warburton-Lytton, herself and her family. A small, rectangular stone chapel with canted angles and slightly tapering walls. West and east walls have blank doors with architrave frames flanked by consoles and with segmental pediments. There are inscribed panels on the long elevations. Niches in the canted sides with stone vases. The roof rises to a central podium carrying a stone sarcophagus with shell acroteria. The monument is surrounded by contemporary iron railings. (Pevsner (1977).

The ashes of Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton (1869-1923) are held in a casket within the Mausoleum. In 1908 she joined the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), the militant suffrage organisation founded by Emmeline Pankhurst in 1903. Constance became one of the Union’s organisers. Despite her comfortable background she accepted a small salary as it freed her to take part in militant activities without compromising her family. Constance set up a small branch of the WSPU at Knebworth, but her main suffrage activity took place away from the Lytton family seat. In February 1909 she was arrested on a suffragette deputation to Parliament and sentenced to a month in Holloway. The following October Constance and other suffragettes were sent to Newcastle to disrupt Chancellor David Lloyd George’s visit. She was arrested for throwing stones at the Chancellor’s motorcade and was again sentenced to one month in prison in Newcastle. In line with the WSPU’s new policy, Constance went on hunger strike. The official response to this was to feed prisoners by force, but the prison doctor recognised Constance’s heart condition and instead released her.

Constance was convinced that her title had brought her special treatment, and to prove it disguised herself as a working-class seamstress, and adopted the pseudonym Jane Warton. She took part in a WSPU protest at Walton Gaol, Liverpool, and was arrested for stone-throwing. This time her medical examination was perfunctory and ‘Jane’ was forcibly fed multiple times and only released when her true identify was uncovered. This episode damaged her health and she took no further part in militant action, although she remained involved in the WSPU. She suffered a heart attack, then a stroke, teaching herself to write with her left hand to complete her book, ‘Prison and Prisoners’, in 1912.

This list entry was amended in 2018 as part of the centenary commemorations of the 1918 Representation of the People Act.

Listing NGR: TL2316521137

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
162104
Legacy System:
LBS

Sources

Books and journals
Jenkins, Lyndsey, Lady Constance Lytton: Aristocrat, Suffragette, Martyr, (2015)
Lytton, Constance, Prisons and Prisoners: Some Personal Experiences by Constance Lytton and Jane Warton, Spinster, (1913)
Pevsner, N, Cherry, B, The Buildings of England: Hertfordshire, (1977)

Legal

This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

End of official listing

Images of England

Images of England was a photographic record of every listed building in England, created as a snap shot of listed buildings at the turn of the millennium. These photographs of the exterior of listed buildings were taken by volunteers between 1999 and 2008. The project was supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Date: 18 Apr 2003
Reference: IOE01/04975/07
Rights: Copyright IoE Mr Ron Walker. Source Historic England Archive
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