The Crescent

Overview

Heritage Category:
Listed Building
Grade:
I
List Entry Number:
1257876
Date first listed:
25-Jan-1951
Date of most recent amendment:
31-Jan-1997
Statutory Address:
The Crescent, Buxton

Map

Ordnance survey map of The Crescent
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Location

Statutory Address:
The Crescent, Buxton

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:
Derbyshire
District:
High Peak (District Authority)
National Grid Reference:
SK 05806 73572

Details

SK 0573 NE 616-1/3/83

BUXTON THE CRESCENT The Crescent

(Formerly Listed as: THE CRESCENT, St Anne's Hotel. Crescent Hotel.)

25/01/51

GV I Hotel, assembly room and five lodging houses, later council premises, now vacant. 1780-88, addition c.1803 with C19 and C20 alterations. By John Carr of York for the fifth Duke of Devonshire, additions possibly by J White. Ashlar, brick and dressed stone with ashlar dressings and Westmorland slate roofs. Cruciform stone stacks.

STYLE: Neo-Classical.

PLAN: crescent.

EXTERIOR: three storeys to front, four storeys to rear, and basements. Front has symmetrical 29 window semi-circular range culminating in five window facades at each end. Rusticated, round arched arcade to ground floor has set back 27 round headed openings, with sets of steps in front of arches 2, 8, 11, 14, 16, 22 and 23 (from right to left). Central altered doorway and to left a three-light opening, a window, a door, two windows, a doorway altered to a window, two windows, two blocked doors and three windows. To the right two windows, a door, two windows, a door, five windows, a door and a window. All the windows are glazing bar sashes and doorways have mostly six-panel doors and fanlights. Above giant fluted Roman Doric pilasters with blind balustrade and full entablature, topped by balustrade with plain panels interspersed with shaped balusters, the central panel is carved with the Cavendish arms.

First floor has 23 plain sashes and to the right six glazing-bar sashes, with guilloche pattern plat band between floors, and second floor has 29 glazing bar sashes. Five window facades at either end have similar articulation, set back ground floor facades have four round headed sashes each. Left return has similar articulation, five window range with blocked entrance at bay 1, first floor windows blind and second floor windows with glazing bar sashes. Right return has similar articulation, seven window range, with seven round headed sashes on the first floor and seven blank panels above.

Rear facade of dressed stone, four storeys. Ground floor has tall round headed windows mostly blocked, and small square projections with stairs. First and second floors have boarded glazing bar sashes and third floor has smaller glazing bar sashes.

INTERIOR: of former St Ann's Hotel altered but some original features survive. The vaulted cellars serviced by central passageway are divided into secure rooms providing wine cellars and stores. These retain many original features, such as four planked doors with strapped hinges within pegged architraves, that have been refronted with panelled doors. There are six-panel doors with low lock rails. Stone flag floors and a stone table survive. Window openings include two internal lunettes and an exterior window with chamfered mullion. To the right-hand, east, section many wooden doors retain top panels with bars for ventilation or vent holes. two fireplaces with stone jambs and lintels, one with narrow grate, the other larger.

Ground floor has later ornate dining room addition to rear, with massive moulded beams upon double modillions in five rectangular panels. Folding shutters to windows. Later furnishings include Chinese style woven wall hangings. First floor has cast-iron balusters to stairs, with wreathed wooden handrail and columns to landing. Door glazed and engraved to upper panels, with fanlight and raised panels to spandrels, in ornate doorcase with ovolo moulding, leads into Smoking Room. Drawing room also has entrance door with engraved glass to upper panels and overlight, in moulded surround with entablature. The ceiling has shallow relief plasterwork of interlocking scrolls with central roundel. The frieze is similar in style to the cyclamen or "whiplash" pattern. Ornate fireplace with overmantel. One fireplace removed at time of survey, elaborate over mantel mirror remaining.

Former Great Hotel, later Crescent Hotel, has semi-circular staircase rising from right-hand entrance to first floor Assembly Room with canted corners. Coved ceiling with ornate Adam style plasterwork, also plaques to wall. Marble fireplaces with overmantels, coved decorated alcoves, and ornate door cases, all with pediments either scrolled or triangular. The double panelled doors are round headed. Order of Corinthian columns and engaged pilasters. Adjoining the Assembly Room is the former card room (2x2) with panelled doors.

The remaining houses and the hotel were designed as individual units, those to the hotel have linking curved central corridors on each floor. Each unit has three windows to the front and five windows to the rear with splayed internal walls following the curve of the Crescent. The units also have single flight return, cantilevered stone staircase with iron balustrade and wooden handrail. Most units contain some original decoration such as doors, doorcases and plasterwork, though many were modernized in the C19 and they retain interesting C19 fireplaces, plasterwork and panelling. Brick and stone vaulted cellars retain at least one later cooking range and slop stone sink.

Balustrade to Great Stair by Thomas Smith of Chesterfield, and plasterwork to Assembly Room by James Henderson of York and carving by Thomas Waterworth of Doncaster. The Crescent cost £38,601.18s.4d.

Listing NGR: SK0580673572

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
463354
Legacy System:
LBS

Sources

Books and journals
Hall, I , Georgian Buxton, (1984), 40
Leach, J, The Book of Buxton, (1987), 124
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Derbyshire, (1953), 113
Hall, I, 'Georgian Group Journal' in The Crescent Buxton, (1992), 40-55

Legal

This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

End of official listing

Images of England

Images of England was a photographic record of every listed building in England, created as a snap shot of listed buildings at the turn of the millennium. These photographs of the exterior of listed buildings were taken by volunteers between 1999 and 2008. The project was supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Date: 23 Feb 2004
Reference: IOE01/11179/02
Rights: Copyright IoE Mr David Morten. Source Historic England Archive
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