65-71 Monmouth Street and attached rear drum forming the southern point of Ching Court
List Entry Summary
This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.
Name: 65-71 Monmouth Street and attached rear drum forming the southern point of Ching Court
List entry Number: 1322128
65-71 Monmouth Street, London, WC2H 9JN
The building may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
County: Greater London Authority
District Type: London Borough
Parish: Non Civil Parish
National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.
Date first listed: 15-Jan-1973
Date of most recent amendment: 08-Nov-2016
Legacy System Information
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System: LBS
This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.
List entry Description
Summary of Building
Terrace of C18 and C19 houses, including the full height drum attached to the rear, restored and integrated within phase 3 of the development, 1989-91, by the Terry Farrell Partnership as part of the regeneration of Comyn Ching Triangle.
Reasons for Designation
65-71 Monmouth Street, including the full height drum attached to the rear, restored and integrated within phase 3 of the development, 1989-91, by the Terry Farrell Partnership are listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Architect: a significant, formative scheme by a leading British architect and exponent of postmodernism;
* Architectural interest: part of a spatially powerful, mixed-use regenerative scheme, marked by bold form and detail, based on an intellectual understanding of historic precedent, interpreted in a witty postmodern idiom;
* Contextual placemaking: a masterly exercise in placemaking, eliding the old and new, that recognised the scale and patina of the original (and then recently listed) buildings and spaces in the creation of Ching Court;
* Degree of survival: little altered, retaining both Farrell's new, and historic external profiles and facades, their detail, fixtures and fittings;
* Historic interest: an early and exemplary project in urban contextualism, reflecting the emerging philosophy towards conservation and regeneration.
Comyn Ching Triangle in its present form is the result of a regeneration project, executed in three phases from 1978-91 by the Terry Farrell Partnership. The project integrated the restoration of existing C17,C18 and C19 listed buildings and shop fronts with the design and erection of new buildings and the creation of a new public space, in a mixed use development. It occupies one of the triangular blocks that radiate from the Seven Dials, laid out in 1692 by Sir Thomas Neale, and is bounded by Monmouth Street to the W, Mercer Street to the NE and Shelton Street to the SE, and at its core is Ching Court, and a public thoroughfare through it, created in 1983-5.
The regeneration of Comyn Ching Triangle was central to Farrell's work in the Covent Garden area, following Clifton Nurseries (1980-1). It is a significant example of his approach to urban contextualisation from the 1980s, in its pragmatic elision of a new urban plan and structures with the existing scale, fabric and patina of the essentially C17, C18 and C19 streetscape.
Farrell created a new landscaped, public space in the centre of the site, an area which had previously been gradually built over, obscuring the original building line. New entrances from Monmouth Street and Shelton Street provided access to this courtyard, and a diagonal public route across it, while a series of added entrances at ground floor level within the courtyard provided access to the upper floors of the existing buildings and gave prominence to the rear elevations which had been previously hidden by extensions and years of accumulated buildings. At the corners of the site new buildings replaced redundant commercial premises, while the intervening street frontages of existing commercial premises, most of them listed buildings of C17 and C18 origin, were renovated. Integral to the project was the reinstatement and refurbishment of the premises and showroom of the longstanding occupants, Comyn Ching ironmongers, at 17-19 Shelton Street.
The historic streetscape is made up of traditional London three and four storey buildings, now mostly with added attics or mansards and with basements. Most are conventionally constructed in red, plum and stock brick, some with red brick or engineering brick dressings, some stucco rendered or painted, and have slate and tile roofs.
The scale, forms and palette of materials and colours used in the new buildings at the corners of the site complement and provide both a unifying identity and new vitality to the scheme. They are clad in traditional materials interpreted in a forward-thinking way, while windows and bold Mannerist entrances are coloured turquoise blue and deep red. Throughout, the scheme is unified by Farrell’s interpretation of the Comyn Ching logo – paired inverted ‘Cs’ which are a signature of the metalwork. At the core of the site, Ching Court is a discrete and tranquil paved court, which creates a seamless connection with the buildings. Sloping from N to S, it is reached by semicircular steps descending from the north entrance and shallow stepped paving rising from the Shelton Street entrance. The corner rotundas, prominent rear entrances, modelled rear windows, masonry parapet walls, kerbs and a built-in seat to the rear of Mercer Street, place the buildings within the landscape. Varied forms of steel balconies, window guards, and later planters also designed by Farrell, and bearing the CC logo, provide context within the idiom of the site.
RECEPTION On completion the scheme was admired and well received, notably in a critique in the Architects' Journal (6 March 1985), which praised its architectural assurance and ingenuity. 'Where old fabric has been kept it is revered and treated seriously, but in the final result we are not so much aware of the old and the new co-existing side by side as of one single lively identity embodied in the still recognisable historic streets'. (AJ 6 March 1985, 58). The project won a Civic Trust Award in 1987 and on 26 March 1999 the Seven Dials Renaissance Project was awarded an Environmental Design Award by the London Borough of Camden.
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT Designs for the enabling stage were prepared from 1978 and executed on site from 1981 to 1983. Following the granting of listed building consent, the corner buildings at Seven Dials were demolished and the C17 panelled interiors and stairs from 51 Monmouth Street were removed and stored, to be reinstated in 55 Monmouth Street.
Phase 1 (on site June 1983, completed May 1985), entailed the restoration, conversion or part-reconstruction of 15 listed C17-C19 houses and shopfronts; and the creation of Ching Court and new entrances within it to the upper floors of Shelton Street and Monmouth Street buildings. It encompassed 53-63 Monmouth Street, laid out as a mix of offices on three storeys above retail on the ground floor and basement levels; 11-19 Shelton Street, arranged as a mix of flats on three storeys above retail at ground floor and basement levels; and 21-27 Mercer Street, arranged as four houses, for private sale.
Phase 2 (on site 1985, completed c1987) comprised a new building on the corner of Seven Dials, at 45-51 Monmouth Street and 29-31 Mercer Street, which provided four storeys of offices above ground and basement level retail premises. A new building on the corner site at 19 Mercer Street and 21 Shelton Street provided flats on six storeys and a basement.
Phase 3 (on site c1989, completed c1991), addressed the southern apex of the site, 65-75 Monmouth Street and 1-9 Shelton Street. The restoration, conversion or part-reconstruction of four listed buildings (65-71 Monmouth Street) and four unlisted C17-C19 houses and shopfronts on Shelton Street, integrated with a new building at the southern corner of the triangle, provided retail accommodation on the ground floor and basement, three storeys of offices above, with a residential top floor.
ARCHITECT Sir Terry Farrell (b.1938) is a pre-eminent British architect and urban designer, of international standing. He has been a leading force in establishing postmodernism as an architectural presence in this country. After graduating from the University of Newcastle School of Architecture, Farrell took a Masters in Architecture and City Planning at the University of Pennsylvania, where tutors included Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, whose work would later have a bearing on the postmodernist movement in Britain.
While working briefly for the LCC in 1961-2, Farrell was responsible for the Blackwall Tunnel Ventilation Towers (constructed 1961-4, each listed at Grade II, NHLE 1246736 and 1246738). After 15 years in partnership with Nicholas Grimshaw, which included the Herman Miller Factory, Bath (1976, listed Grade II, NHLE 1415261), Farrell set up practice independently. At that time he was also involved in Charles Jencks' Thematic House, London (1979-84), an early and important essay in postmodernism. Notable projects in Britain, the majority in London, include Clifton Nurseries, Covent Garden, (1980-1), TV am studios, Camden Lock, 1982, now altered; Comyn Ching, Seven Dials (completed 1985); Landmark House, City of London (1985-7), Charing Cross Station (Embankment Place), Westminster (1990); Alban Gate, 125 London Wall (1990-2); MI6 headquarters, Vauxhall (1993); also the Edinburgh International Conference Centre (1995). More recent projects range from the Home Office, London (completed 2005); the Great North Museum, Newcastle (completed 2009) to Bicester Eco Town, Oxon (ongoing). He established an office in Hong Kong in 1991, leading to a prolific practice in Asia, noted for Beijing South Station (completed 2008).
Farrell continues to be an important voice, contributing through published works to current architectural opinion. The Farrell Review of Architecture and the Built Environment (2014) followed a commission from the Department of Culture Media and Sport.
Terrace of C18 and C19 houses, restored and integrated within phase 3 of the development, 1989-91, by the Terry Farrell Partnership as part of the regeneration of Comyn Ching Triangle. The site has been undergoing redevelopment during the assessment.
MATERIALS: red-brown brick and stock brick with red brick dressings and slate roofs. C20 construction in reinforced concrete and steel. All have timber entrances and windows, and some have Farrell's characteristic metal balustrades and window guards.
The scale, forms and palette of materials and colours used in the new building at the corner of the site complemented and provided both a unifying identity and new vitality to the scheme. The rear window bay is a traditional form interpreted in a forward-thinking way, while its windows are coloured deep red.
PLAN: the facades of 65-71 Monmouth Street are conventionally laid out in two bays and on four storeys and attics, with a single retail outlet occupying the ground floor of 65-67, single shop fronts to 69 and 71, with offices above.
Behind the four-storey facades and ground floor shops, the corner plot, known as St Martin's House, is a single space on each floor, served by a central service core and reached by stairs from Shelton Street. There is access on each floor to the rear drum window bay that forms the southern apex of Ching Court.
EXTERIOR: the shopfronts, rebuilt or restored by Farrell, have entrances set to the side, reflecting the historic convention, with part-glazed doors beneath overlights; fixed-light shop windows with robust chamfered glazing bars above offset panelled stall risers, restored rather than renewed, and have renewed fascias. All are unified by Farrell's number plates which are used throughout the Triangle.
The upper floors of No. 65 are of red-brown brick with slightly recessed six over six pane sashes, taller on the first floor, and beneath segmental red brick arches. No. 67, in a lighter brick, similarly has recessed six over six pane sashes beneath shallow segmental arches. Painted on the brickwork, the facade advertises the trade of B. FLEGG/ ESTd.1847/ SADDLER & HARNESS MAKER/ LARGE/ STOCK /OF/ SECONDHAND SADDLERY & HARNESS/ HORSE/ CLOTHING/18, with the name B. FLEGG applied diagonally to each side.
Nos. 69 and 71, restored by Farrell, are in stock brick in two bays. The former has recessed two over two pane sashes, the left hand bay with Farrell window guards, the latter with recessed six over six pane sashes; both have added flat-roofed dormers. CHING COURT ELEVATION: the rear forms the southern internal angle of Ching Court, and also abuts 11-13 Shelton Street (NHLE1378652). It comprises a glazed drum behind colonnades, rising through five storeys, with a simplified giant order at the first and second floors. Timber window and door units are facetted, with bold near-flush frames, painted red, with margin panels and top-hung overlights. On the ground floor and third floor they are set back behind the colonnade, while on the first and second floors they abut the piers. The internal plan reflects this arrangement, creating canted internal bays with robust rounded piers and simple block architraves. Each level has a rectangular steel balustrade between the piers, painted dark grey/black; these diminish in size from the ground floor upwards, and by the fourth floor is a shallow window guard. The attic storey has a smaller drum, set back behind the coping, beneath a semicircular canopy, and has a full semicircular balustrade, of horizontal bands.
INTERIOR: with the exception of the rear form and architraves of the drum window bay, which is included in the listing, the interior*, a single space incorporated into St Martin's House in 2016, is not of special interest.
* Pursuant to s.1 (5A) of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 (‘the Act’) it is declared that with the exception of the aforementioned drum window bay, the interior of the building is not of special architectural or historic interest.
Books and journals
The Master Architect Series: Terry Farrell: selected and current works, (1994)
Cherry, B, Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: London 4, North, (1998 revised 2001), 318
Davies, Emma (ed), Collage and Context Terry Farrell The Partnership's Complete Works 1981-1991, (2013)
'Post-modern: continuity in the work of Farrells 1981-2011' in Architecture Today , , Vol. 222, (Oct 2011 ), 2-23
'Historic Precedent: the rehabilitation of the 18th century buildings in the Comyn Ching triangle at Seven Dials in Covent Garden' in Architects’ Journal , , Vol. 181 no.10, (6 March 1985), 47-58
'Facsimile facades in Comyn Ching?' in Architects’ Journal , , Vol. 173 no.14, (8 April 1981), 629
National Grid Reference: TQ3006781015
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End of official listing