Pillbox at Brampton Road

Overview

Heritage Category:
Listed Building
Grade:
II
List Entry Number:
1466559
Date first listed:
12-Feb-2020
Location Description:
NGR NY 40342 57099.
Statutory Address:
Junction of Brampton Road and Well Lane, Carlisle, CA3 9AN

Map

Ordnance survey map of Pillbox at Brampton Road
© Crown Copyright and database right 2020. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2020. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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Location

Statutory Address:
Junction of Brampton Road and Well Lane, Carlisle, CA3 9AN

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Location Description:
NGR NY 40342 57099.
County:
Cumbria
District:
Carlisle (District Authority)
Parish:
Non Civil Parish
National Grid Reference:
NY4033857098

Summary

Pillbox, 1940-41, camouflaged as a garden wall.

Reasons for Designation

The pillbox at Brampton Road, 1940-41, is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

Architectural interest:

* an exemplary example of a Second World War pillbox camouflaged as a civilian building, in this case a handsome garden wall; * part of Western Command Stop Line 18, whose defensive intention to guard potential enemy egress from the River Eden is well illustrated; * an individually designed pillbox using local red sandstone along with more regular brick and concrete; * the structure retains its essential character and functional legibility.

Historic interest: * as an extant manifestation of the precautions taken to repel an invading force during the early stages of the Second World War.

History

Pillboxes are small fortified structures constructed as part of British anti-invasion preparations, being placed at strategic locations such as river crossings, or along coastal and inland anti-invasion ‘stop lines’ intended to slow down the progress of an attacking force. Some were designed for rifles or light machine guns; others, more unusually, housed larger artillery. The earliest examples of pillboxes date from the First World War, when a small number were constructed along the coast, but the concept was developed in the early stages of the Second World War, when many thousands were built, though only a limited proportion survive. The majority of these are standard designs which were issued in June and July 1940 by the War Office Directorate of Fortifications and Works. There were around 12 standard designs formed from reinforced concrete, but basic designs were also adapted to local circumstances and available building materials. Additionally there were completely individual designs, some of which were disguised to resemble a quite different non-military structure.

This pillbox was built in 1940 or 1941 as part of the Western Command Stop Line 18 which ran from Pooley Bridge to near Brampton. The pillbox is an individual design rather than one of the standard, reinforced concrete designs. It has been camouflaged as part of a stone-built garden wall. It is situated to protect the exit road from Rickerby Park including access from the River Eden below, and is thought to have been associated with a former road block. The pillbox is included in a 1949 drawing of Brampton Road, Stanwix by Brian Fawcett, demonstrating that it remains unchanged.

Details

Pillbox, 1940-41.

MATERIALS: local red sandstone and red brick; concrete roof and resting shelf.

PLAN: irregular plan of three straight facets with a curvilinear south and east face.

EXTERIOR: situated on an elevated site in the corner of Barn Close garden at the junction of Well Lane and Brampton Road. It faces south-east towards the exit from Rickerby Park and the River Eden below. It is of non-standard form with a flat roof that retains its roof-top camouflage vegetation. The curvilinear south-east face is constructed of red sandstone blocks with a string course, to match the garden wall to either side, but standing taller; it has three square embrasures. At the north-east corner there is a tall entrance with a wooden boarded door, and a stone threshold and lintel. This door gives access to a set of concealed steps with flanking brick walls that lead up to the rear entrance. The remaining faces are of red brick construction in a variant English Garden Wall bond. The thick rear wall retains a tree-trunk scar, and has an entrance at its western end: this has an angled left jamb and is fitted with a metal, barred door. A protective brick blast wall projects northwards to the right side of the entrance.

INTERIOR: the roof is of shuttered concrete and all walls are unpainted; the three embrasures are visible as splayed horizontal slits. The south-east stone constructed face is strengthened by the addition of a structure comprising nine courses of concrete sand bags; its location immediately below a pair of embrasures indicates that it also served as a resting shelf for small arms.

Sources

Books and journals
Brown, I et al, 20th Century Defences in Britain, (1996), 78-93
Websites
Defence of Britain Archive, accessed 01-10-2019 from https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/dob/ai_full_r.cfm?refno=13279
Other
Postcard 1949 by Brian Fawcett: Carlisle Library Local Studies collection; illustrations collections, small views; Brampton Road

Legal

This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

End of official listing

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