- Heritage Category:
- Listed Building
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Statutory Address:
- Wallingford, OX10 0DT
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- Statutory Address:
- Wallingford, OX10 0DT
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- South Oxfordshire (District Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
Terrace of six cottages retaining mid-C17 timber framing.
Reasons for Designation
The cottages at 1-6 Kinecroft, Wallingford are listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* for the survival of a significant proportion of a timber-framed structure dating to around the mid-C17, including elements of the queen-post roof structure, spine beams, joists, wall framing, winder stairs, inglenook fireplaces and some early doors across the range.
* as a well-preserved terraced range of timber-framed cottages, demonstrating vernacular building traditions as applied to modest dwellings of the mid-C17.
The Kinecroft (known as ‘Canecroft’ in the C13-C14 centuries and ‘Kenny Croft’ in C16-C17) forms the westernmost portion of the south-west quarter of Saxon Wallingford. The croft is defined by earthworks which form part of the Wallingford Saxon Town scheduled monument (National Heritage List for England entry 1006329). The defensive banks are continuous along the south side and are only broken on the west side by embrasures which were cut during the Civil War. The present east-west Kinecroft lane, upon which the present cottages occupy the southern side, was the principal access to the croft from the east in the late-Saxon period. The croft was maintained as open land for keeping cattle at this time, although some tentative development occurred in the early-medieval period; evidence of occupation of the southern part of the Kinecroft having been uncovered through excavations in 2008 (see Christie et al, 2013, pp304-329), as part of which the footings of a C12 timber-framed range were recorded. The early-medieval buildings on the Kinecroft are thought to have been removed by the C14-15. Certainly by the C16 the Kinecroft had been restored as an open, intra-urban common with occasional social and economic activity recorded in the form of fairs and markets. The Kinecroft continued to be subject to common rights until 1912, when it was given to the town by the then owner, Mr Powyss Lybbe, and has since been a public recreation ground.
The eastern end of the Kinecroft lane has been developed since the C16, with the 1584 Rental recording one of 134 houses in the town situated at the junction with what is now Goldsmiths Lane (see plan in Dewey and Dewey, p80). The extant timber framing within each of the cottages to the west of this (the present 1-6 Kinecroft) suggests a probable mid-C17 date of construction and the scale of the dwellings suggests they were built to serve as workers’ cottages or dormitories, possibly for the burgeoning Wallingford brewing industry: the Wallingford Brewery was established in 1720, although brewing was an established industry within the town long prior to this. By 1867 the cottages along with the houses to the west and the Coach and Horses public house at the end of the terrace were all in the possession of Edward Wells, of the Wallingford Wells Brewery which was situated immediately to the north on Goldsmiths Lane. The entire Kinecroft terrace remained in the ownership of the Wells family until 1935, when sold to Messrs Leverton, drapers of Faringdon.
Over the course of the C18, C19 and C20, numbers 1-6 were extended to the south in a piecemeal manner. The 1847 Tithe Map and associated Apportionments for St Mary Wallingford record the cottages under the same ownership and appear to indicate early, varied extensions to the rear to all of the cottages except numbers 1 and 3 by this time. The 1878 Ordnance Survey (OS) map of Berkshire (1:1,2500) shows a different arrangement of plot boundaries, with numbers 1-3 connected at this stage (the present number 3 having been extended to the rear since 1847). By the time of the 1899 OS revision, number 1 is marked distinctly and has clearly been rebuilt to the south in its present L-shaped form, with part of the new building cutting into the plot of number 2. It is also apparent that number 3 has been subdivided by this stage. There was evidently a concerted effort to bring some uniformity to the eastern part of the Kinecroft terrace under the ownership of Edward Wells in around 1900, with numbers 1-6 refronted at approximately this time and dormers either added or reconstructed as part of this campaign of works: a photograph taken from the western end of the Kinecroft dating to 1902 shows the cottages with the new brick and applied timber frontage (without the render coating). Into the late C20, various extensions were added or rebuilt to the rear of the cottages; all barring number 2 having not been extended since the 1976 OS map (1:1,2500). The interior of the ground floor of number 2 was remodelled between 1960 and 1964 (as shown in plans held by the owner) in order to remove part of a corridor between the two distinct front rooms; the rooms have subsequently been unified.
Terrace of six cottages retaining mid-C17 timber framing, refronted in around 1900. Extensions have been built to the rear at various stages over the course of the C18, C19 and C20.
MATERIALS: box-framed timber construction with wattle-and-daub infill with brick and rubblestone stacks. Rendered brick with applied timbers to the principal frontage to the north. Pegged clay-tile roof to entire range, save for the later-C20 extensions.
PLAN: the terrace runs east-west along Kinecroft with extensions to the rear (south). Most of the cottages appear to have originally had a simple single-cell ground-floor with an attic storey, which is still legible, although later extensions have cut through the rear walls. In their existing configuration, each of the cottages is one room-bay wide, with the exception of the double-bay plan to number 2.
EXTERIOR: the principal elevation to the street is the product of the phase of work of around 1900, with rendered brick, applied timbers and casement windows to the ground floor and gabled dormers set above. The front doors are mostly later replacements, though all retain shallow hoods with shaped brackets. There are substantial brick stacks to the gable end of number 1 and to the ridge between 2 and 3, as well as 5 and 6; the chimney to number 4 is of later (about 1900) construction. The rear elevations are of varying date, extent and scale. Number 1 has a double-storey, L-shaped rear range of rendered brick built between 1878 and 1899, with a later (post-1976) single-storey lean-to extension built against this. Number 2 has a gable end extension to the south, which appears to have been built by 1899. The single-storey extensions to numbers 3-4 post-date 1976, with the earlier roof profile, rear dormers and extension bay retained. Numbers 5-6 have double-storey extensions which also post-date 1976, although the extension to number 5 integrates an earlier C18 single-room addition to the ground floor.
INTERIOR: elements of the timber frame are retained throughout the range. The main historic fabric in each of the cottages is described in turn below:
1 Kinecroft: the easternmost cottage within the range has heavy timber joists which are set east-west in the front room running into the end walls with no spine beam (this contrasting with the other buildings within the range, as outlined below). There is a substantial rendered brick stack with a simple timber post-and-lintel fire surround (a later addition) to the principal ground-floor room. To the first-floor front room there is a queen-post truss with thin struts and purlins. The kitchen and dining area extension (ground floor) and second bedroom (first floor) retain no historic features of note.
2 Kinecroft: the only double-bay cottage within the range, this appears to have been underbuilt (presumably as part of the phase of work of around 1900) and the ground-floor wall surface projects just forward of the first floor, indicating that there may have been a jettied upper floor in this part of the range at an earlier stage. The cottage has lower door and window heights than the rest of buildings in the range and is sunken around one foot beneath the street level. Timber ceiling joists with a chamfered central spine beam with run-out stops extend the full length of undivided front room (a corridor that was probably introduced in the late C19 - leading from the entrance to the kitchen addition and set between the two rooms - was removed between 1960 and 1964). The east wall has thin posts pegged-in to a wall plate and sole plate raised on a rendered stone or brick plinth. To the west end there is an inglenook fireplace with a substantial chamfered timber lintel with run-out stops, the inner reveals are of rendered rubblestone, with niches to both sides. On the south side of the inglenook is a winder stair and parts of the framing to the back wall are visible (including a wall post, part of the sole plate and the wall plate; this framing also being exposed in the opposing side of the wall seen from the southern extension). At first-floor level, the western bedroom has its brick and rubblestone stack structure exposed, with a timber lintel marking out a former fireplace which has been infilled with a smaller brick opening, fronted with an elaborate C19 cast-iron fireplace. Next to this is a small niche, possibly originally a salt or spice store, also with a timber lintel. Elements of the back wall, including posts, part of a mid-rail and the wall plate to the earlier southern roof pitch are retained and exposed. The western room to the front of the range has elements of exposed framing including a staggered wall plate, part of a mid-rail (north wall) and a purlin to the west side of the southern roof pitch.
3 Kinecroft: this shares a stack with number 2 to the east and also has a large inglenook centrally-positioned on the east side of the front room. This is built from large blocks of rubblestone and bricks with a chamfered timber lintel with run-out stops. Set within the inglenook are inner reveals of uncoursed chalkstone. A winder staircase is set to the south of the stack, this being of probable mid-C17 construction. An integrated cupboard is set under the stairs and the carpentry and ironwork to this feature (including a three-panel beaded door with strap hinges and a latch) is similar to examples securely dated to the mid-C17 (see Hall, chapters 2-3); the door to the stairs and the carpentry to the underside of the treads and the stair construction suggest these elements are contemporary with the cupboard and inglenook. The west wall to the cottage has thin box-framed panels and the wall plate exposed, with wattle-and-daub infill set just proud of the timbers. A chamfered spine beam with run-out stops is set east-west across the front bay of the cottage, with joists exposed. There is a chequered (dark red and black) quarry-tiled floor throughout this front part of the range, which ends in line with the timber-framing, indicating the start of later additions to the south. To the first-floor front room there is a brick round-backed fireplace with tiled fireplace and rough straw-based parging to the reveal and flue. The western gable has a close-studded partition, with a heavy tie beam and raking queen posts supporting purlins. The eastern gable has a tie beam cut through to provide a doorway (now blocked) that would have connected numbers 3 and 4 at first-floor level. There are two principal rafters in the roof with a bridled ridge and a supporting cleat. The front (north) pitch of the roof has been restored (in the late C20) and rear roof pitch has been reconfigured (between 1847 and 1878 on the basis of map evidence) to a shallow pitch as part of the southern extension. The loft area is continuous with number 4.
4 Kinecroft: the east wall retains wall posts and part of the mid-rail, with peg holes indicating concealed or removed elements of the frame here. The former back wall integrates part of a door frame with a pair of scribed ‘daisy wheel’ apotropaic markings. A central spine beam runs east-west across the front room with joists concealed under modern plaster. A brick fireplace of probable later-C18 date has been constructed beneath the earlier stack with the timber lintel retained. A winder stair is set to the south of the stack. The flooring to the front room is chequered quarry tiling, matching the other cottages within the range. The earliest, single-bay (double-storey) extension to the rear at ground floor retains a rear door frame with a plank-and-batten door and a window opening from this later phase (speculatively dated to the late C18). At first-floor level, a raking queen-post roof with light studding is exposed (east gable). The front and rear wall plates are visible and there is a scarf joint at the west end of the front plate where it meets the tie beam to the west gable. A thin purlin can be seen to the rear (south) roof pitch. A four-panel door has been inserted between the front and rear room, possibly re-sited from elsewhere as this appears to be an earlier fixture.
5 Kinecroft: the ground-floor front room has a chamfered spine beam which runs east-west across the front bay of the cottage, with joists supported. The east wall has thin box-framed panels and a sole plate and wall plate are exposed, with wattle-and-daub infill set proud of the timbers. An inglenook is set against the front wall (east side), with rendered rubblestone reveals and a heavy timber lintel. There is a section of chequered quarry-tiled floor exposed adjacent to the inglenook, suggesting that this might be retained throughout the front part of the range. The timber-framing to number 5 extends back further than other cottages within the range, pointing to an early extension at ground-floor level, possibly of C18 date on the basis of the thin and regular framing here. The rear extension bay has a slightly higher floor level and the rear wall has a central window opening and a doorway to the west side which now connects to the later C20 double-storey extension. The stairs are a straight-flight set, leading south within the historic extension bay; these presumably replacing earlier winder stairs which would have been set to the south of the inglenook (as extant in other cottages within the range). To the first floor, the tie beams and collar beams, ridge plate and clasped purlins are all visible (with a scarf joint to the eastern end of the purlin to the south roof pitch). The front wall plate, posts and bracing are also exposed. There is a section of close-studded framing recessed behind the stack to the south side, with a high-set rail, suggesting this may previously have served as a narrow connecting doorway to number 6. A simple C20 arched-brick fireplace has been built into the rendered stack.
6 Kinecroft: the ground-floor front room has a chamfered and stopped spine beam which runs east-west across the front bay of the cottage, with joists exposed. The west wall has thin box-framed panels and a sole plate and wall plate exposed. Wattle-and-daub infill is set just proud of the timbers here. On the east side the stack has been rebuilt (possibly using some earlier brick), though elements of the wall framing remain. A wall post to what would have been the back wall of the cottage survives, although the rear extension has removed any further evidence of timber framing here. To the first floor, the tie beams, collar beams and clasped purlins are all visible. Elements of the front wall plate, posts and bracing are also exposed. The western gable has its tie beam cut-through, this pegged-in to posts to form an opening through to an additional narrow room (now the bathroom) which oversails the entrance to number 7.
Books and journals
Christie, N, Creighton, O, Edgeworth, M, Hamerow, H, Transforming Townscapes. From Burh to Borough : The Archaeology of Wallingford, AD 800-1400, (2013)
Dewey, J, Dewey, S, The Book of Wallingford, (1977)
Hall, L, Period House Fixtures and Fittings 1300-1900, (2005)
British History Online: 'The borough of Wallingford: Introduction and castle', in A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 3, ed. P H Ditchfield and William Page (London, 1923), pp. 517-531, accessed 3 February 2020 from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/berks/vol3/pp517-531
David Nash Ford's Royal Berkshire History: Wallingford, accessed 3 February 2020 from http://www.berkshirehistory.com/villages/wallingford.html
1-6 Kinecroft: list of owners 1850-1949, compiled by D Pedgley (unpublished; 2019)
Wallingford Conservation Area Appraisal (South Oxfordshire District Council), adopted Apirl 2018
This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.
End of official listing