Gate lodges to Oatlands Park

Overview

Heritage Category:
Listed Building
Grade:
II
List Entry Number:
1472952
Date first listed:
27-Apr-2021
Statutory Address:
East Lodge and West Lodge, 148 and 150 Oatlands Drive, Weybridge, Surrey, KT13 9HA

Map

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Location

Statutory Address:
East Lodge and West Lodge, 148 and 150 Oatlands Drive, Weybridge, Surrey, KT13 9HA

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:
Surrey
District:
Elmbridge (District Authority)
Parish:
Non Civil Parish
National Grid Reference:
TQ0837064870

Summary

Gate lodges. Built in about 1858 to a matching design when the mid-C18 gateway was moved to this location; the gateway is built up against the porches and east and west facing walls of the gate lodges. The east lodge was later extended.

Reasons for Designation

The gate lodges to Oatlands Park, built in around 1858, are listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

Architectural interest

* the gate lodges hold a good degree of architectural quality, with some notable decorative details such as the rusticated quoins and oeil-de-boeuf windows, and form a fine composition with the mid-C18 gateway.

Historic interest

* as part of Oatlands Park, an informal landscape laid out from the 1740s under Henry Pelham-Clinton, ninth Earl of Lincoln, assisted by such notables as Lord Burlington, William Kent, Joseph Spence, and Stephen Wright, on land which originated as a Tudor deer park to Oatlands Palace, a residence of Henry VIII and successive monarchs.

Group value

* with the Grade II*-listed gateway, Grade II-registered Oatlands Park and the Grade II-listed Oatlands Park Hotel, as well as the scheduled monument of Oatlands Palace and the Grade II-listed entrance gateway and walls of the palace.

History

Oatlands Park originated as a Tudor deer park covering 538 acres and containing Oatlands Palace, one of many residences near London used by Henry VIII (a scheduled monument, see List entry 1191628). Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I all spent time at Oatlands but for James I it was more of a home and in 1611 he transferred the palace to his Queen, Anne of Denmark. Inigo Jones worked at Oatlands and built a silkworm house and a Great Gate (both demolished). Anne died in 1619, and in 1630 John Tradescant the Elder was appointed 'Keeper of His Majesties Gardens, Vines and Silkworms' at Oatlands. In 1650, following the execution of Charles I, Oatlands was bought by Robert Turbridge, who demolished it for the value of its building materials. The park reverted to Henrietta Maria, Charles I's widow on the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. In 1669, the estate was leased to the Herbert family but passed to Henry Clinton, seventh Earl of Lincoln, in 1716. He probably built Oatlands House, about 500m east of the site of the palace, and laid out the grounds in about 1725. Henry Pelham-Clinton, ninth Earl of Lincoln, inherited the estate in 1730. The garden had a formal layout at this time, including a terrace and a cruciform canal. From the 1740s onwards, the earl redesigned the gardens in the new informal landscape style, assisted by such notables as Lord Burlington, William Kent, Joseph Spence, and Stephen Wright. It was sold to Frederick, Duke of York, in 1788 who rebuilt the house following a fire. In 1824, Oatlands was acquired by Edward Hughes Ball Hughes, the famous wealthy Regency gambler and dandy known as ‘The Golden Ball’, who later fled abroad because of his debts. The property was auctioned in 1846, when it was divided into building plots following the construction of the London and Southampton Railway through part of the site. The house and 97 acres was subsequently sold to the South Western Hotel Company; the house being converted to a hotel in 1858 which it still remains (2021). In the C20 the grounds were much reduced in size as they were redeveloped for housing. It is a Grade II-registered park (List Entry 1000119).

The Oatlands Park gateway was built in the mid-C18 to a design by the architect and landscape designer William Kent (1685-1748) at the Weybridge end of Oatlands Drive before being moved to its current location, with some alterations, in around 1858. Kent had a major role in introducing the Palladian style of architecture into England and originating the informal style of gardening known as the English landscape garden that subsequently spread across Europe (V&A 2014). He had strong links with Henry Pelham-Clinton who commissioned work on the Oatlands estate in the 1740s. Kent also designed several buildings at Stowe, Buckinghamshire, including the Oxford Gate (since relocated and altered, Grade I-listed), which appeared in a collection of his work published by John Vardy in 1744. The Oatlands Park Gates also replicated this design. In 1747, a public enquiry was held to enclose the road between Walton and Weybridge to form a footway and coachway (Archive NeL 543, Newcastle Collection). William Kent offered the earl his services in 1745 and between 1747 and 1749 the earl paid an extensive amount of money to masons, bricklayers and a smith, which may have included the construction of the gates (Archives NeA 669 and NeC 3111). Some of Kent’s work was overseen by his assistant Stephen Wright who continued to work on the estate after Kent died in April 1748. Wright was well placed to take over work on the estate; he had served as Clerk of Works at Hampton Court Palace from 1746 and Richmond New Park Lodge from 1754. Wright replicated several features at Stowe designed by Kent, including the Temple of Venus and Ancient Virtue (Symes 1992). He was involved on work at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, by 1769, where another copy of the gateway design, the Drayton Gate, was constructed (Grade II*-listed).

Oatlands Park Gates are possibly marked by a couple of small black dots on Rocque’s map of Surrey published in 1768. The gates appear in a drawing in a guide produced when the Duke of York opened Oatlands Park to members of the public in 1822. A more detailed engraving was also produced by Letitia Byrne in the same year. The gateway was moved to its current location, facing Oatlands Drive, at some point between 1850 and 1864; probably upon the conversion of the house to the Oatlands Park Hotel which opened in 1858, providing a formal point of entry to the hotel grounds. The gates are referred to in their previous location in Felix Summerley’s Pleasure Excursions: Walton and Weybridge (1847) and William Keane’s Beauties of Surrey (1849). However, they are shown in their new location in Edward Ryde’s 1864-65 survey of Walton and Weybridge (Surrey History Centre Reference: 602/ Roll 6). Upon relocation, the gateway was heightened by an additional ashlar plinth course to make it appear grander. This change in height meant that the two side gates were now too small to fill each arch and it was necessary to insert wrought-iron scrollwork above them. Flanking railings were also added. The number of ball finials over the arches were reduced and two moved/placed over the pediments of the main gate piers. In addition, two gate lodges were built to each side of the gateway, probably in order to provide surveillance and security to the entrance to the hotel grounds. The lodges are now occupied as private dwellings. A condition survey of the gateway was carried out in 2017 and the gates repaired in 2018, involving paint analysis, steam cleaning, insertion of Portland stone indents, replacement of corroded cramps, re-pointing and renewal of a spherical stone plinth and finials.

Details

Gate lodges. Built in about 1858 to a matching design when the mid-C18 gateway was moved to this location; the gateway is built up against the porches and east and west facing walls of the gate lodges. The east lodge was later extended.

MATERIALS: red brick with stone dressings and double Roman-tiled roofs.

PLAN: an east and west lodge flanking the park gateway and its screen wall. Each lodge is L-shaped in plan with a main gabled range of a lower storey and attic storey, and a single-storey lean-to and gabled cross-wing.

EXTERIORS: the gate lodges are built of red brick with a stone plinth and rusticated stone quoins beneath double Roman-tiled roofs with a deep eaves cornice. Each lodge has a main range that is two bays wide and three bays long with a single storey lean-to furthest from the gate, and a later gabled cross-wing built into the lean-to (that to the east lodge has been extended). The inward elevations facing the gateway each have a gabled entrance porch flanked by two-over-two paned sash windows and an oeil-de-boeuf window to the attic storey. There is a string course above the ground floor and corbelled chimneys to the roofs. The front and rear elevations have a large square-headed two-over-two sash beneath a tympanum and an oeil-de-boeuf window to the main range, a small two-over-two sash to the lean-to, and a French door to the cross-wing. The cross wings have a single oeil-de-boeuf window to their end elevations furthest from the gateway.

INTERIORS: the west lodge contains a lounge with fireplace to the ground floor of the main range, a kitchen and bathroom to the lean-to, and a bedroom to the cross range. A winder stair is situated next to the lounge and leads up to a bedroom and bathroom in the attic storey. Fixtures and fittings are largely modern but there are several earlier four-panelled doors. The east lodge (interior not seen) is considered to have a similar layout but the cross wing has been extended.

Sources

Other
‘Engraving by Letitia Byrne of Oatlands Park Gates dated 1822’ (Surrey History Centre PX155/52)
‘Letter from W. Kent, London, to Catherine Clinton, Countess of Lincoln; 6 July 1745’ (Nottingham University Manuscripts and Special Collections Ne C 3111)
Christopher, R, ‘The Mystery of Oatlands Park Gates Part 1’, Exploring Surrey’s Past, accessed 1 November 2020 from www.exploringsurreyspast.org.uk/the-mystery-of-oatlands-park-gates-part-1/
Christopher, R, ‘The Mystery of Oatlands Park Gates Part 2’, Exploring Surrey’s Past, accessed 1 November 2020 from https://www.exploringsurreyspast.org.uk/the-mystery-of-oatlands-park-gates-part-2/
Cole, H, Felix Summerley’s Pleasure Excursions (1847), accessed 1 November 2020 from https://books.google.co.uk/books
Edward Ryde’s Survey of Walton and Weybridge (Surrey History Centre 602/Roll6)
Hassall, C, Oatlands Park Gates Paint Analysis, Report C143 (September 2018)
Historic England, Oatlands, Register of Historic Parks and Garden List entry 1000119, accessed 1 November 2020 from https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1000119
'Plan number 1. Freehold building ground situate in Oatlands Park for sale 1850' and 'Plan number 2. Further lots for sale in Oatlands Park 1850' (Elmbridge Museum 40.1909/d)
'Plan of the Oatlands Estate in the Parishes of Walton, Weybridge and Chertsey in the County of Surrey. For sale by Messrs Driver .1846’ (Elmbridge Museum 2.1949)
Symes, M, ‘The Garden Designs of Stephen Wright’, Garden History, 20, 1, (Spring 1992), pp. 11-17
Vardy, J, Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones and Mr William Kent (1744), accessed 1 November 2020 from https://archive.org/details/SomedesignsMrIn00Jone/page/n7
Victorian and Albert Museum (V&A), ‘William Kent: Designing Georgian Britain’ (2014), accessed 15 January 2020 from https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/william-kent-designing-georgian-britain

Legal

This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

End of official listing

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