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Battle of Neville's Cross 1346

List Entry Summary

This battlefield is registered within the Register of Historic Battlefields by English Heritage for its special historic interest.

Name: Battle of Neville's Cross 1346

List entry Number: 1000024

Location

NEVILLE'S CROSS

The battlefield may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: County Durham

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish:

County:

District: County Durham

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Bearpark

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not Applicable to this List Entry

This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. As these are some of our oldest designation records they do not have all the information held electronically that our modernised records contain. Therefore, the original date of scheduling is not available electronically. The date of scheduling may be noted in our paper records, please contact us for further information.

Date first registered: 06-Jun-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: Battlefields

UID: 25

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Battlefield

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

BATTLE OF NEVILLE'S CROSS 1346



After King Edwards III's resounding victory over the French at Crecy in August 1346, the English set about besieging Calais. King Phillip of France asked his ally King David II of Scotland to provide a diversion by attacking England. The Scottish army camped outside Durham on 16 October 1346, having raided extensively in Northumberland.

King Edward's northern forces advanced on the Scots the following morning, the two armies clashing on a ridge at Neville's Cross. The Scots were disadvantaged by the uneven topography which broke their formations, but the battle was finely balanced. When one Scottish flank eventually gave way, King David found himself outnumbered and outflanked. The battle was over and David, deserted by his troops, was captured.

Neville's Cross was a shattering defeat for the Scots. When, the next year, the English followed up on their victory, they were able to occupy virtually all of Scotland south of the Forth and Clyde rivers. It took a century for the Scots to recover all that they had lost.

Only the western side of the battlefield remains undeveloped, but it has been enclosed and improved since 1346, when it was rough grazing land. Contemporary accounts tell of ditches criss-crossing the western area, perhaps marking the boundary of Beaurepaire, or Bearpark. It was only in the last century that buildings and the railway encroached upon the battlefield area.

AMENITY FEATURES Public access to the battlefield area is good by both foot and car. The terrain of the battlefield is varied and includes a number of features of historical interest both of the battle period and earlier. The cross, which was there before the battle, is surrounded by modern development.

OTHER DESIGNATIONS Most of the land in the battlefield area is within an Area of Great Landscape Value. To the west lies the Bearpark Recreation Development Area.

KEY SOURCES Laing, D (ed.), 1872, The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland by Andrew of Wyntoun Maxwell, Sir H, 1913, 'Chronicle of Lanercost', in Scottish Historical Review, X, 179

Selected Sources

Websites
Historic England Battlefield Report, accessed 11-JUN-2015 from https://content.HistoricEngland.org.uk/content/docs/battlefields/nevilles.pdf

National Grid Reference: NZ 25736 42534

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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End of official listing