Romano-British farmstead on Beanley Moor, 500m SSE of Broom House
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
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This copy shows the entry on 08-Aug-2020 at 15:17:31.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
- NU 10532 18538
Reasons for Designation
In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.
The farmstead south-east of Broom House is exceptionally well preserved and an outstanding example of a small farmstead. This form of enclosure is more commonly associated with the North Tyne area and as such its situation in upland Northumberland is of additional interest.
The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date
situated near the edge of West Corbie Crags. The farmstead is a virtual square
in shape with rounded corners and measures a maximum of 25m across within an
earth and stone bank 6m wide and varying in height from 0.5m to 1.3m. Outside
the bank there is a ditch 0.8m deep and 3m wide with a slight counter-scarp
bank 0.8m high on its outer edge. An entrance lies in the centre of the east
side, carried across the ditch on a causeway, the northern side of which is
lined with large stones. Within the enclosure there are the foundations of
three prehistoric circular houses; each house is 5m in diameter within stone
and earth walls 1m wide.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana, 4 ser 42' in Enclosed Stone Built Settlements in Northumberland, (1964), 64
M-SS of G Tube, HBNC 18 pt 1, (1890)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing