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Prehistoric regular aggregate field system with incorporated enclosure and stone hut circles 550m NNW of Lamelgate Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric regular aggregate field system with incorporated enclosure and stone hut circles 550m NNW of Lamelgate Farm

List entry Number: 1007474

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Neot

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 18-Feb-1994

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15258

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time.

Elaborate complexes of fields and field boundaries are a major feature of the Moor landscape. Regular aggregate field systems are one such method of field layout known to have been employed in south-west England during the Bronze Age (c.2000 - 700 BC). Regular aggregate field systems comprise a collection of field plots defined by boundaries laid out in a consistent manner, along two axes set at right angles to each other. A single regular aggregate field system may contain several contiguous blocks of such plots and each block may differ slightly in the orientation of the axes used in its layout. Regular aggregate field systems often incorporate or are situated near stone hut circles, the dwelling places of prehistoric farmers on the Moor, and enclosures, mostly also dating from the Bronze Age. Hut circles, stone-based round houses, survive as low walls or banks enclosing a circular floor area; the remains of a turf or thatch roof are not preserved as visible features. The huts may occur singly or in small or large groups and may occur in the open or be enclosed by a bank of earth and stone. Enclosures are discrete plots of land enclosed by stone walls or banks of stone and earth. They were constructed as stock pens or as protected areas for crop-growing and were sometimes subdivided to accommodate animal shelters and hut circle settlements for farmers or herders. The size and form of enclosures may therefore vary considerably depending on their particular function. Prehistoric field systems, hut circles and enclosures are important elements of the existing landscape and provide important evidence on the nature and organisation of farming practices and settlement among prehistoric communities. This monument on Lamelgate Farm has survived well. The evidence for successive phases in the prehistoric field system's construction and its incorporation of the earlier enclosure and of the hut circle settlement, demonstrate well the nature and development of farming practices and social organisation during the Bronze Age. The stone hut circles are also unusual in their incorporation of especially large edge-set wall slabs. The extensive lynchetting of the prehistoric field walls will preserve buried land surfaces contemporary with the field system's construction and use. The proximity of the monument to broadly contemporary groups of cairns on the surrounding hilltops shows well the nature of land use and the relationship of settlement to funerary and ritual activity among Bronze Age communities.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric regular aggregate field system incorporating an ovoid enclosure and at least eight stone hut circles situated on the north-east slope of a broad spur occupied by Lamelgate Farm. The spur extends east from Draynes Common into the River Fowey valley on southern Bodmin Moor. The monument also includes part of a medieval field system that impinged on the area of the prehistoric field systems. The prehistoric regular aggregate field system survives over 4.5 ha and contains walls of heaped rubble and boulders, up to 0.9m high and 2m wide, incorporating occasional edge-set facing slabs and boulders. Where the walls run along the contour, a substantial build up of deposits, called a lynchet, has accumulated against the uphill side and top of the walling due to the combined effects of prehistoric cultivation and gravity. The layout of the regular aggregate field system shows it to result from successive prehistoric enclosure along and up the hillslope. At the lowest level on the slope is a single row of at least nine contiguous field plots, extending approximately NW-SE along the contour. The plots range from 0.05ha to 0.4ha in surviving extent with walls running directly downslope from an uphill boundary and truncated along their lower edges by a modern wall defining the upper limit of recent pasture improvement. Within the row, the plots are grouped into three distinct blocks reflecting successive phases and methods of piecemeal prehistoric enclosure of the hillslope. Two large plots, of 0.8ha and 0.6ha respectively, extend the area of the prehistoric field system to a level averaging 50m up the slope from the uphill boundaries of the lower row of plots. The larger, north-western, plot is formed by a sinuous wall running 30m upslope from the north-western of the lower plots. This wall then turns south-east, roughly along the contour, towards a straight wall linking the central block of lower plots with the lower wall of an ovoid prehistoric enclosure. The straight wall, 68m long, forms the north-west wall of the smaller of these two plots, whose uphill wall is defined by the lower wall of the enclosure. The curving outline of the enclosure and its relationships with the other walls of the field system may indicate that the enclosure was already in existence before the regular field system expanded up the slope to meet and incorporate it. The enclosure is located near the crest of the hillslope and is defined by a heaped rubble wall, up to 2.4m wide and mostly up to 0.75m high, but rising to 1.2m high along its downslope, massively lynchetted, north-east side. The wall incorporates numerous edge-set inner and outer facing slabs and defines an ovoid internal area of 0.36ha, measuring 65m NW-SE by 60m NE-SW. The enclosure contains six of the monument's eight stone hut circles. The other two hut circles are also situated near the enclosure, 20m to its south- east and 20m to its NNW. The hut circles survive with walls of heaped rubble and large boulders, up to 1.4m wide and 1m high, defining circular or oval internal areas ranging from 4m in diameter to 8.6m by 8m. Some are levelled into the hillslope. The walls frequently incorporate edge-set inner and outer facing slabs, including some unusually massive examples. Entrance gaps, 1m wide, are visible in two hut circles within the enclosure, facing south-west and south-east. A curving prehistoric wall links the hut circle NNW of the enclosure to the upper side of the large north-western plot of the regular field system. A similar wall runs upslope from that hut circle, running west then curving south-west before being truncated by medieval enclosure banks. These walls may reflect a further expansion of the prehistoric field system, taking in the land north-west of the enclosure at the top of the hillslope. The monument includes several boundaries of a medieval field system which partly re-uses some walls of the prehistoric field system and which extends beyond the monument to encompass the rest of the spur. The medieval field boundaries survive as earth-and-rubble banks, up to 2m wide and 0.8m high, accompanied along one side by a ditch, up to 1m wide and 0.2m deep. One such boundary runs NE-SW, defining the surviving north-western extent of the prehistoric field system along the hillslope; at the crest of the slope this boundary meets another which runs south-east to incorporate the upper, south-west, wall of the prehistoric enclosure into its line. Downslope of the enclosure, most of the straight prehistoric wall linking it with the lower row of prehistoric plots was refurbished as a medieval wall. This was joined by two medieval ditched banks extending south-east along the contour. The upper of these runs 5m-8m beyond the line of the enclosure's north-east wall; the lower runs 45m-50m to its north-east, part of its course re-using the uphill boundary of the lower row of prehistoric plots. Beyond the monument, a group of broadly contemporary prehistoric funerary cairns is located around the summit of the broad hill occupied by Draynes Common, while directly opposite this monument in the River Fowey valley, similar small groups of cairns are situated on each of the sequence of rounded hilltops bordering the valley.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plot and field trace for SX 2171,
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plot and field trace for SX 2171,
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plot and field trace for SX 2171,
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plot and field trace for SX 2171,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.01,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.02,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.03,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.04,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.05,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.06,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.07,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1255.08,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1348,

National Grid Reference: SX 21819 71344

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 19-Oct-2017 at 03:52:50.

End of official listing