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Four bowl barrows and parts of two linear boundary earthworks and a cross-dyke 750m west of Wharram Percy Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Four bowl barrows and parts of two linear boundary earthworks and a cross-dyke 750m west of Wharram Percy Farm

List entry Number: 1007535

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: North Yorkshire

District: Ryedale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Birdsall

County: North Yorkshire

District: Ryedale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Wharram

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 11-Nov-1966

Date of most recent amendment: 19-Jan-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 20512

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally (many more have already been destroyed), occurring across most of lowland Britain. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape and their considerable variation of form and longevity as a monument type provide important information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

Although the barrows have been partially altered by agricultural activity, three are still clearly visible as upstanding mounds, retaining conditions for the preservation of features within the mound, and were comparatively well documented during a campaign of fieldwork in the 19th century. One barrow has not been excavated and, although no longer visible as a mound, its below- ground features will survive intact. The linear boundaries and cross-dyke included in the scheduling are only visible from aerial photographs but the below-ground remains of infilled ditches will survive intact and their proximity to the barrows means that their chronological relationships may be determined. The monument is one of a closely associated group of barrows which have further associations with broadly contemporary boundary earthworks in the vicinity of Birdsall Wold. Similar groups of monuments are also known from the southern edge of the North York Moors. Such associations between monuments offer important scope for the study of the division of land for social, ritual and agricultural purposes in different geographical areas during the prehistoric period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes four bowl barrows and associated parts of two linear boundary earthworks and a cross-dyke. The monument is situated on the crest of Toisland Wold, in an area known as Greenlands, and is one of a number of prehistoric monuments at the eastern end of Birdsall Wold. Although altered by agricultural activity, three of the barrows are visible as slight mounds and the infilled quarry ditches of all four barrows are visible on aerial photographs. The westernmost, which lies in the north-east corner of the modern field, has a mound 1.5m high with a diameter of 30m; this barrow is unusual in having two concentric quarry ditches which are 21m and 32m in diameter. Fifty metres to the east of this a slight ill-defined mound, less than 0.3m high, marks the location of a second barrow whose maximum diameter, determined from aerial photographs, is 22m. The southern edge of the barrow has been slightly disturbed by the insertion of a modern concrete base and irrigation pipe. A third barrow, only visible from the air, lies a little to the north and between the above mounds and has a maximum diameter of 22m. The fourth barrow is visible as a 1m high mound with indistinct edges and having a diameter of 40m; the mound has been spread over the years by ploughing and its ditch now lies beneath the edges of the mound. The three upstanding mounds were recorded and partially excavated by J R Mortimer in 1866. The linear boundaries and cross-dyke have been levelled by agricultural activity but, although no longer visible as earthworks, the infilled ditches are visible on aerial photographs and were recorded in the 19th century by Mortimer. These were extensive features and have been traced to run for several kilometres across the Wold but only those parts which are closely associated with the barrows are included in the scheduling. The first linear boundary comprises three parallel ditches running from just north of the westernmost barrow to Wharram Percy Plantation. Each ditch is estimated to be 5m wide and will have been flanked by banks of earth giving a total width of 32m. Just south of this lies the second linear boundary bearing south-east; this comprises a single ditch having an estimated width of 5m which will have had a bank about 5m wide on each side. The cross-dyke is the continuation of that which survives as an earthwork in Vessey Pasture Dale (which is considered as a separate monument) and, although there are no visible traces of the earthwork on its northern part, its line is preserved by the modern parish boundary and below-ground features such as its infilled ditch will survive. The three linear features converge within the area of the monument. All fences and the irrigation pipe structure are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Mortimer, J R , Forty Years Researches in British and Saxon Burial Mounds of East Yorkshire, (1905)
Other
Stoetz, K., RCHME Survey,

National Grid Reference: SE 83788 63503

Map

Map
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End of official listing