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Roman camp 200m west of Galleygill Bridge

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Roman camp 200m west of Galleygill Bridge

List entry Number: 1007869

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Hesket

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Nov-1961

Date of most recent amendment: 07-Feb-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23667

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Roman camps are rectangular or sub-rectangular enclosures which were constructed and used by Roman soldiers either when out on campaign or as practice camps; most campaign camps were only temporary overnight bases and few were used for longer periods. They were bounded by a single earthen rampart and outer ditch and in plan are always straight-sided with rounded corners. Normally they have between one and four entrances, although as many as eleven have been recorded. Such entrances were usually centrally placed in the sides of the camp and were often protected by additional defensive outworks. Roman camps are found throughout much of England, although most known examples lie in the midlands and north. Around 140 examples have been identified and, as one of the various types of defensive enclosure built by the Roman Army, particularly in hostile upland and frontier areas, they provide an important insight into Roman military strategy and organisation. All well-preserved examples are identified as being of national importance.

The Roman camp 200m west of Galleygill Bridge is one of many lying adjacent to the main Roman road connecting the Vale of York with Carlisle. Many of these camps display marked differences in plan, defensive arrangements, numbers of gateways, size and subsequent troop disposition. Despite the absence of any upstanding earthworks at this monument, aerial photographs have identified below ground features which have been confirmed by limited excavation. The camp will contribute to any study of Roman military campaigning in northern England.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is a Roman camp located on the edge of high ground overlooking the River Petteril to the west. It lies 400m north west of Old Penrith Roman fort (known to the Romans as Voreda) and a short distance west of the A6 trunk road which here follows the line of the Roman road that connected Old Penrith with the fort at Carlisle (known to the Romans as Luguvallium). Parts of the camp are visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs which highlight features such as infilled ditches. Aerial photographs show much of the north west and north east sides of the camp and its rounded northern corner, and indicate that it is between 90m - 100m wide. Limited excavation across the defences of the north east side of the camp in 1977 found a V-shaped outer ditch 2.6m wide and approximately 1m deep. The bottom of the ditch contained large cobbles laid in silt; immediately above these were four pottery sherds of black-burnished ware which is only found in northern England from about AD 120 onwards. All post and wire fences, gateposts and a telegraph pole are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Breeze, DJ, The Northern Frontiers of Roman Britain, (1982), 71
Goodburn, R, 'Britannia' in Roman Britain In 1977, , Vol. 9, (1978), 425
St Joseph, J K, 'Journal of Roman Studies' in Air Reconnaissance of North Britain, , Vol. 41, (1951), 54
Other
AP No STJ DM060, Cambridge University Collection,
Petteril Green Roman Camp, (1984)
SMR No. 2921, Cumbria SMR, Roman Camp Near Galley Gill Bridge, (1984)

National Grid Reference: NY 49083 38901

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1007869 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 24-Oct-2017 at 12:32:42.

End of official listing