Slight univallate hillfort on Barrock Fell

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1007874

Date first listed: 16-Jan-1974

Date of most recent amendment: 24-Mar-1994

Map

Ordnance survey map of Slight univallate hillfort on Barrock Fell
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden (District Authority)

Parish: Hesket

National Grid Reference: NY 46573 47488

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Slight univallate hillforts are defined as enclosures of various shapes, generally between 1ha and 10ha in size, situated on or close to hilltops and defined by a single line of earthworks, the scale of which is relatively small. They date to between the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (eighth - fifth centuries BC), the majority being used for between 150 and 200 years prior to their abandonment or reconstruction. Slight univallate hillforts have generally been interpreted as stock enclosures, redistribution centres, places of refuge and permanent settlements. The earthworks generally include a rampart, narrow level berm, external ditch and counterscarp bank, while access to the interior is usually provided by two entrances comprising either simple gaps in the earthwork or an inturned rampart. Postholes revealed by excavation indicate the occasional presence of portal gateways while more elaborate features like overlapping ramparts and outworks are limited to only a few examples. Internal features include square or rectangular buildings supported by four to six postholes and interpreted as raised granaries, timber or stone round houses, large storage pits and hearths as well as scattered postholes, stakeholes and gullies. Slight univallate hillforts are rare with around 150 examples recorded nationally. Although on a national scale the number is low, in Devon they comprise one of the major classes of hillfort. In other areas where the distribution is relatively dense, for example, Wessex, Sussex, the Cotswolds and the Chilterns, hillforts belonging to a number of different classes occur within the same region. Examples are also recorded in eastern England, the Welsh Marches, central and southern England. In view of the rarity of slight univallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the transition between Bronze Age and Iron Age communities, all examples which survive comparatively well and have potential for the recovery of further archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.

The slight univallate hillfort on Barrock Fell remains largely visible on aerial photographs despite the fact that no upstanding earthworks survive and a conifer plantation exists on the hillfort's western edge. It is a relatively small example of this class of monument and will retain evidence for the arrangement of the settlement within the hillfort's interior.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is a slight univallate hillfort located on the upper slopes of Barrock Fell approximately 400m north west of the summit. The site is visible as crop marks on aerial photographs which clearly show much of the hillfort's infilled ditch. The aerial photographs show a single ditched sub-circular enclosure measuring approximately 65m in diameter. Two post and wire fences crossing the monument are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 23672

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Challis, , Harding, , 'British Archaeological Reports' in Later Prehistory from the Trent to the Tyne, , Vol. 15, (1975), 122
Other
AP No. DO 049, Cambridge University Collection,
SMR No. 707, Cumbria SMR, Enclosure on Barrock Fell, (1987)

End of official listing