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Hascombe Camp: a small multivallate hillfort north west of Lodge Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Hascombe Camp: a small multivallate hillfort north west of Lodge Farm

List entry Number: 1008522

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Surrey

District: Waverley

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Hascombe

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 30-Nov-1925

Date of most recent amendment: 20-Oct-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23012

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Small multivallate hillforts are defined as fortified enclosures of varying shape, generally between 1 and 5ha in size and located on hilltops. They are defined by boundaries consisting of two or more lines of closely set earthworks spaced at intervals of up to 15m. These entirely surround the interior except on sites located on promontories, where cliffs may form one or more sides of the monument. They date to the Iron Age period, most having been constructed and occupied between the sixth century BC and the mid-first century AD. Small multivallate hillforts are generally regarded as settlements of high status, occupied on a permanent basis. Recent interpretations suggest that the construction of multiple earthworks may have had as much to do with display as with defence. Earthworks may consist of a rampart alone or of a rampart and ditch which, on many sites, are associated with counterscarp banks and internal quarry scoops. Access to the interior is generally provided by one or two entrances, which either appear as simple gaps in the earthwork or inturned passages, sometimes with guardrooms. The interior generally consists of settlement evidence including round houses, four and six post structures interpreted as raised granaries, roads, pits, gullies, hearths and a variety of scattered post and stake holes. Evidence from outside numerous examples of small multivallate hillforts suggests that extra-mural settlement was of a similar nature. Small multivallate hillforts are rare with around 100 examples recorded nationally. Most are located in the Welsh Marches and the south-west with a concentration of small monuments in the north-east. In view of the rarity of small multivallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the nature of settlement and social organisation within the Iron Age period, all examples with surviving archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.



Despite storm damage, Hascombe Camp survives comparatively well with the interior of the enclosure remaining largely undisturbed within a complete circuit of defences. Partial excavation has demonstrated that the site contains both archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument, its inhabitants, their economy and the landscape in which they lived. It has also produced evidence for the abandonment of the site, an event possibly coinciding with the Roman invasion.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details



The monument includes a small multivallate hillfort of Iron Age date, situated on the south west tip of a ridge of sandstone. It is roughly rectangular in shape and aligned south west to north east.

The hillfort has earthen rampart defences which enclose an area of approximately 2.5ha. To the south east, south west and north west a bank and outer ditch follow the crest of the natural slope. The bank has been eroded over the years and the ditch has become infilled but survives as a buried feature c.3m wide, visible as a terrace 3.5m below the crest of the bank. A second ditch, c.4m further down the slope, is also visible as a terrace: the slope below it has had additional scarping. On the eastern corner the terrace continues north east for a further 25m beyond the inner defences along the edge of the slope. The north eastern defences have a single bank which survives up to 1.5m high and 12m wide, a ditch 5m wide and 0.5m deep and a natural rise beyond them utilised as an additional defensive feature. The entrance, situated on the north east side 30m from the northern corner, survives as a gap in the rampart 3m wide with two short out-turned banks c.10m long, 8m wide and 1m high.

The hillfort was first excavated in 1931 when trenches were put through the defences on all four sides and a single trench centrally through the interior: sling-stones, querns and Iron Age pottery were recovered. More recent excavations in 1975 and 1977 recovered more occupation evidence with a loom- weight, a spindle whorl, grains and querns, as well as hearths and pits within the interior of the enclosure suggesting domestic activity. Also the north eastern ramparts were found to be stone-revetted, including the out-turned banks of the entrance. The gap between them was also found to have included two sets of gates. The pottery is all Late Iron Age and dates from between 200 and 50 BC.

The occupation of the hillfort is believed to have been quite short-lived. The apparently deliberate breakage of expensive household items such as quernstones, also seen at the nearby site of Holmbury, suggested that the occupants may have been forced to abandon the site, an event possibly coinciding with Caesar's landings of 55 and 54 BC.

Excluded from the scheduling are all fences, gates and posts but the ground beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Thompson, FH, 'Antiquaries Journal' in Hascombe Camp, , Vol. 59 part2, (1979), 245-318
Winbolt, S E, 'Surrey Archaeological Collections' in Hascombe Camp, , Vol. 40, (1932), 78-96

National Grid Reference: TQ 00501 38662

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1008522 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 20-Jul-2018 at 11:04:44.

End of official listing