Romano-British farmstead, 650m west of High Cowden Cottage

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1008665

Date first listed: 28-Aug-1962

Date of most recent amendment: 08-Aug-1994

Map

Ordnance survey map of Romano-British farmstead, 650m west of High Cowden Cottage
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Chollerton

National Grid Reference: NY 91231 79345

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

This farmstead is well-preserved. It is one of a group of similar settlements in this area and will contribute to study of the wider settlement pattern at this time.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a farmstead of Romano-British date situated on the summit of a gently sloping hill. The rectangular farmstead measures a maximum of 50m north east to south west by 45m north west to south east within a broad ditch 5m across. There are traces of a counter-scarp bank outside of the ditch, best preserved on the western side of the enclosure. The eastern side of the enclosure is now much denuded but can be traced as a slight ditch 4m across.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 20967

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Hogg, A H A, 'Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11' in Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11, (1947)
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960)
Other
5422,

End of official listing