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Roman's Cross 50m west of the church

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Roman's Cross 50m west of the church

List entry Number: 1009186

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Devon

District: West Devon

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Sheepstor

National Park: DARTMOOR

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 06-Oct-2000

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 24819

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Roman's Cross 50m west of the church is a striking example of a medieval wayside cross which has been well restored, and forms a focal point outside Sheepstor parish church. It is unusual, for western Dartmoor, in having crosses carved in relief on it.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument, also known as Roman's Cross, includes a well-preserved wayside cross of moderately coarse-grained granite, set on a stepped plinth outside the western gate of Sheepstor churchyard. The cross is Listed Grade II. The monument was restored in 1919 when new arms were cemented on and the plinth was constructed. Before restoration the cross was in use as a rubbing post in a nearby field. The total height of the cross above the plinth is 1.62m, and the shaft is more or less square in section being 0.3m by 0.29m. The edges of the shaft have a chamfer 60mm wide. The south west face of the shaft has a hole plugged with cement 0.45m above the base. The base of the shaft is cemented into a gap between four blocks of granite. The north west side of the shaft has a relief Maltese cross cut into it. The shaft of the relief cross is 60mm-80mm wide and is raised about 15mm. It extends right to the base of the main shaft. On the south east side, a relief cross survives only below the arms of the cross. It too extends to the base and is about 80mm wide and is raised a maximum of about 20mm. The head of the cross extends a maximum of 0.2m above the arms. It is narrowest (0.24m) where it meets the arms, but at the top is 0.28m wide. The top has been broken off on its south east side, removing the top portion of the relief cross on this side, but has been restored with cement. The new splayed arms, which are aligned nearly north east-south west, have a total width of 0.68m. They extend a maximum of 0.19m from the shaft and have a maximum depth of 0.32m on their outside edge and of 0.27m against the shaft. The cross is set on a composite modern granite plinth in three steps, with an additional course on the south west side. Each step is about 0.3m in height. Each visible part of the plinth is composed of four granite blocks which are largest at the lowest level. Some of the blocks have drill marks and others were clearly once part of gateposts. The lowest of the top three plinths measures 2.25m by 2.05m externally. The whole monument is constructed on sloping ground so that while on the north east side the base of the cross is only about 0.4m above the level of a path leading to the churchyard gate, on the south west side, against the road, there is a drop of about 1.4m to road level.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details

National Grid Reference: SX 55959 67653

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 09:34:16.

End of official listing