A Neolithic barrow on Whiteleaf Hill, 50m east of Whiteleaf Cross

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1009532

Date first listed: 26-Mar-1934

Date of most recent amendment: 12-Oct-1992

Map

Ordnance survey map of A Neolithic barrow on Whiteleaf Hill, 50m east of Whiteleaf Cross
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1009532 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 12-Dec-2018 at 15:07:57.

Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Buckinghamshire

District: Wycombe (District Authority)

Parish: Princes Risborough

National Grid Reference: SP 82217 03979

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Long barrows were constructed as earthen or drystone mounds with flanking ditches and acted as funerary monuments during the Early and Middle Neolithic periods (3400-2400 BC). They represent the burial places of Britain's early farming communities and, as such, are amongst the oldest field monuments surviving visibly in the present landscape. Where investigated, long barrows appear to have been used for communal burial, often with only parts of the human remains having been selected for interment. Certain sites provide evidence for several phases of funerary monument preceding the barrow and, consequently, it is probable that long barrows acted as important ritual sites for local communities over a considerable period of time. Some 500 long barrows are recorded in England. As one of the few types of Neolithic structure to survive as earthworks, and due to their comparative rarity, their considerable age and their longevity as a monument type, all long barrows are considered to be nationally important.

The Neolithic barrow on Whiteleaf Hill, though considerably disturbed by past excavation and reconstruction, survives as a substantial landscape feature and is the only surviving Neolithic earthwork known in the county. The presence of an intact surrounding ditch indicates that the current shape of the mound conforms approximately to that of the original barrow which appears to have been D-shaped with the facade facing west. Neolithic monuments are rare and monuments of this shape and size are particularly so. Despite extensive excavation, further archaeological material will survive. Environmental evidence, pertaining to the original landscape in which the monument was constructed, will also survive sealed on the old land surface in those parts of the mound not disturbed.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the remains of a Neolithic barrow situated on the western edge of Whiteleaf Hill chalk escarpment. The barrow mound has been considerably disturbed by a series of excavations undertaken by Lindsay Scott between the years 1934 and 1939. The present form of the mound is a result of reconstruction following these excavations. The original form of the mound is described by Scott as being a kidney-shaped mound with a forecourt on the east, surrounded by a ditch 2m wide. The present form of the mound conforms largely to this shape, being kidney or D-shaped in plan measuring some 21m north-east to south-west by 23m north-west to south-east and standing to a height of 2m. The top of the mound is irregular with clear evidence of past disturbance. It has the form of two lobes separated by a narrow neck, the position of which conforms to the position of the burial chamber as revealed in the 1930s excavations. Surrounding the mound is a shallow ditch from which material for the original construction of the mound would have been quarried. This survives as a shallow earthwork 4m wide with a maximum depth of 0.3m. The excavation of the mound revealed that the barrow was of earth and flint construction built around a wooden chamber. This was constructed from large tree trunks laid horizontally; the corners of the chamber were defined by four post holes giving a maximum length of 2.4m and width of 1.7m. The chamber contained a single burial, though only the left foot and one tooth were found in the chamber, the rest of the skeleton being scattered outside it. Scattered throughout the mound was a considerable amount of pottery, some 24lbs in weight and representing between 55 and 60 individual vessels of Neolithic date. Other finds from the site included flint flakes and animal bones. Secondary disturbance of the original barrow include an intrusive Romano-British burial in the north-east and a similarly dated rubbish pit in the north-west.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 19053

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Other
NAR (Qualification Card No. 0296),
NAR (Qualification SP 80 SW 1),

End of official listing