Shieling 210m north of Irthing Head
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1010041
Date first listed: 19-Jan-1998
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Carlisle (District Authority)
National Grid Reference: NY 62914 78603
Reasons for Designation
Shielings are small seasonally occupied huts which were built to provide
shelter for herdsmen who tended animals grazing summer pasture on upland or
marshland. These huts reflect a system called transhumance, whereby stock was
moved in spring from lowland pasture around the permanently occupied farms to
communal upland grazing during the warmer summer months. Settlement patterns
reflecting transhumance are known from the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC)
onwards. However, the construction of herdsmen's huts in a form distinctive
from the normal dwelling houses of farms, only appears from the early medieval
period onwards (from AD 450), when the practice of transhumance is also known
from documentary sources and, notably, place-name studies. Their construction
appears to cease at the end of the 16th century. Shielings vary in size but
are commonly small and may occur singly or in groups. They have a simple sub-
rectangular or ovoid plan normally defined by drystone walling, although
occasional turf-built structures are known, and the huts are sometimes
surrounded by a ditch. Most examples have a single undivided interior but two
roomed examples are known. Some examples have adjacent ancillary structures,
such as pens, and may be associated with a midden. Some are also contained
within a small ovoid enclosure. Shielings are reasonably common in the uplands
but frequently represent the only evidence for medieval settlement and farming
practice here. Those examples which survive well and which help illustrate
medieval land use in an area are considered to be nationally important.
The shieling near Irthing Head is reasonably well preserved and retains significant archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of shielings situated along the River Irthing and its tributaries which taken together will add greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the wider Border settlement and economy during this period.
The monument includes the remains of a shieling of medieval date situated on
level ground on the edge of the Gair Burn and orientated north west to south
east. The shieling is visible as the foundations of a rectangular dry stone
building measuring 5.5m by 3.5m. It is bounded by walls 0.7m wide which stand
to a maximum height of 0.5m. There are indications of a doorway through the
eastern wall facing onto the riverside and a stone wall divides the shieling
into two rooms of roughly equal size.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 25126
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 29
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing