West Kennet long barrow, 800m south-east of Silbury Hill

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1010628

Date first listed: 01-Jan-1882

Date of most recent amendment: 24-Jun-1994

Map

Ordnance survey map of West Kennet long barrow, 800m south-east of Silbury Hill
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1010628 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 18-Oct-2018 at 21:31:06.

Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Wiltshire (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Avebury

National Grid Reference: SU 10456 67739

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. Two of the best known and earliest recognised, with references in the 17th century, are around Avebury and Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site. In the Avebury area, the henge monument itself, the West Kennet Avenue, the Sanctuary, West Kennet long barrow, Windmill Hill causewayed enclosure and the enigmatic Silbury Hill are well-known. Whilst the other Neolithic long barrows, the many Bronze Age round barrows and other associated sites are less well-known, together they define one of the most rich and varied areas of Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial and ritual monuments in the country. Long barrows were constructed as earthen or drystone mounds with flanking ditches and acted as funerary monuments during the Early and Middle Neolithic periods (3400-2400 BC). They represent the burial places of Britain's early farming communities and, as such, are amongst the oldest field monuments surviving visibly in the present landscape. Where investigated, long barrows appear to have been used for communal burial, often with only parts of the human remains having been selected for interment. Certain sites provide evidence for several phases of funerary monument preceding the barrow and it is probable that long barrows acted as important ritual sites for local communities over a considerable period of time. Some 500 long barrows are recorded in England of which fifteen survive in the Avebury area. These represent an important group for understanding the historical context within which Avebury developed during the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods; all are considered to be worthy of protection.

West Kennet long barrow survives well and is a well-known and outstanding example of its class. Partial excavation has enhanced our understanding of this site and its class in general. Evidence for the nature of the burial practices in the Neolithic period and subsequent ritual behaviour, for example in the forecourt area, has given an insight into the lives of early farming communities. Despite this excavation, however, much of the mound and the flanking ditches remain undisturbed and will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the Avebury landscape in which it was built.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

West Kennet long barrow is a Neolithic chambered burial mound situated just below the crest of a north-east facing slope with views towards the monumental mound of Silbury Hill c.1km to the north-west. The burial mound has been partially excavated and the entrance to the chambers reconstructed. The barrow mound, which is trapezoidal in plan, measures 104m in length and 25m across at the widest point. The mound survives to a maximum height of 3.2m. The internal chamber, which is at the broader east end of the mound, is of the multiple axial type, consisting of five small chambers, all accessible from a common 12m long passage but not from each other. The chambers vary in size from 2m to 4m across and have a maximum internal height of 2.5m. Following a period of exposure, the mixed bones of at least 30 individuals were placed in the chambers over a number of generations before the entrance was finally sealed. There seems to have been no preference for male or female, adults or children, although there were no infants present. Grave goods included pottery vessels of Early and later Neolithic date as well as beads and stone implements including a dagger dated to between 3000 BC and 2600 BC. The area in front of the entrance to the chamber was originally a forecourt where funerary processions would have arrived and offerings to the dead would have been left in wooden structures.

To the north and south of the mound are quarry ditches 100m in length and c.5m wide located c.6m out from the edge of the barrow mound. Although these have become in-filled over the years they survive comparatively well and remain visible as earthworks.

Excluded from the scheduling is the boundary fence and adjacent field boundaries but the ground beneath these features is included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 21708

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of England: West Kennet Long Barrow, (1957), 137-138
Piggott, S R, The West Kennet Long Barrow: Excavations 1955-56, (1962)
Other
SU16NW100, CAO, West Kennet Long Barrow, (1989)

End of official listing