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Prehistoric standing stone, medieval wayside cross and cross base and post-medieval guide post at Longstone

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric standing stone, medieval wayside cross and cross base and post-medieval guide post at Longstone

List entry Number: 1010846

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Mabyn

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-Mar-1932

Date of most recent amendment: 13-Feb-1995

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 26242

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Standing stones are prehistoric ritual or ceremonial monuments with dates ranging from the Late Neolithic to the end of the Bronze Age for the few excavated examples. They comprise single or paired upright orthostatic slabs, ranging from under lm to over 6m high where still erect. They are often conspicuously sited and close to other contemporary monument classes. They can be accompanied by various features: many occur in or on the edge of round barrows, and where excavated, associated subsurface features have included stone cists, stone settings, and various pits and hollows filled in with earth containing human bone, cremations, charcoal, flints, pots and pot sherds. Similar deposits have been found in excavated sockets for standing stones, which range considerably in depth. Several standing stones also bear cup and ring marks. Standing stones may have functioned as markers for routeways, territories, graves, or meeting points, but their accompanying features show they also bore a ritual function and that they form one of several ritual monument classes of their period that often contain a deposit of cremation and domestic debris as an integral component. No national survey of standing stones has been undertaken, and estimates range from 50 to 250 extant examples, widely distributed throughout England but with concentrations in Cornwall, the North Yorkshire Moors, Cumbria, Derbyshire and the Cotswolds. Standing stones are important as nationally rare monuments, with a high longevity and demonstrating the diversity of ritual practices in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age. Consequently all undisturbed standing stones and those which represent the main range of types and locations would normally be considered to be of national importance.

The route-marking and ritual functions pertaining to standing stones during the prehistoric period may be paralleled on a general level much later by the wayside cross, one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor, where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall, almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross head itself is shaped with the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall, wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head, on whose faces various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur in the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses surviving as earth-fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection. The way-marking function of medieval wayside crosses was continued into the post-medieval period by a variety of guide posts, signs and milestones. Guide posts receive mention from the 16th and 17th centuries, and could be required to be erected following an Act of Parliament in 1697. A rapid increase in the number of guide posts corresponds with the major improvements to the road network and the rise in road traffic resulting from the Turnpike Acts, whereby routes were improved and maintained by groups of trustees, financing the operations from tolls charged on the road users. From a slow start, most Turnpike Acts were passed during the period 1750 to 1820, eventually covering almost one-fifth of the public highway network of the time. The street furniture, including guide posts, resulting from these Acts often survive alongside modern roads and display distinctive features and designs, varying from one Turnpike Trust to another. The standing stone, wayside cross and cross base and guide post contained in this monument provides a rare close-grouping of the successive forms of waymarker characteristic of the prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval periods. The presence of the standing stone, cross base and guide post at or near their original positions also illustrates well the extreme longevity of many routes still in use. The original head and upper shaft of the wayside cross have survived well as one of only two known examples of a wheel head cross bearing a Fleur de Lys motif, also unusual in that its historical emblematic significance is known. The location of the cross and cross base by the junction between a major regional route and a local route, also serving as a parish church path, demonstrates well the major roles of medieval wayside crosses. The presence nearby of the post-medieval guide-post shows clearly the secular development of way-markers following the upheavals in religious attitudes during the 16th century.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric standing stone, a medieval wayside cross and cross base, a post-medieval turnpike road guide post and a protective margin around them, situated by a junction at Longstone where the main route from Bodmin to Camelford is crossed by the road linking the parishes of St Mabyn and Blisland in north Cornwall. The four items included in this monument form a group on the verge in the south east angle of the crossroads. The standing stone is located 5.6m WSW of the wayside cross; the guide post is located 10.8m north east of the cross and the cross base is 5m SSE of the guide post. The prehistoric standing stone is known as the Longstone and has given its name to the adjacent modern hamlet. It survives as a roughly fractured upright granite slab, sub-rectangular in shape, standing 1.5m high and measuring 0.53m wide by 0.19m thick at the base, and 0.65m wide by 0.1m thick at the top. It is set in a modern stone and cement base, 0.1m high and measuring 1.05m north-south by 0.92m east-west, with a slate plaque against its northern side. The Longstone standing stone was recorded by 19th century antiquaries as a `tall unhewn monumental pillar' standing at this hamlet until c.1850, when it was removed by a local farmer and split to make gateposts. The fragment contained within the monument is a portion identified as part of the former standing stone which was erected at its present location in June 1975 by the Wadebridge Old Cornwall Society. This event is marked by an inscribed modern slate plaque affixed to the northern side of the stone's base. The medieval wayside cross survives with a medieval granite round `wheel' cross head and upper shaft, mounted on a modern granite lower shaft and base stone. The head and shaft rise 1.84m high above the base. The head measures 0.42m in diameter and is 0.14m thick. Both principal faces are decorated. The west principal face bears a relief equal limbed cross, the limbs having widely expanded ends, with a round raised boss, 0.1m in diameter, at the centre of the cross motif. A narrow perimeter bead extends between the limbs of the cross motif. The east principal face bears a relief `Fleur de Lys' motif within a narrow bead around the outer edge of the head. The Fleur de Lys motif was a symbol of the Virgin Mary. The medieval upper shaft, integral with the head, is 0.23m high and 0.33m wide by 0.14m thick. The shaft is cemented onto the top of a modern lower shaft, measuring 1.19m high and 0.36m wide by 0.22m thick, which in turn is set into the modern granite base stone, measuring 1.83m north-south by 1.2m east-west and set flush with the ground. The cross is situated beside the crossroads on the main route linking the towns of Bodmin and Camelford, both important administrative and market centres in the medieval period. The junction marks the crossing of the route within the parish from the east to the church at St Mabyn and the road to the neighbouring parish of Blisland. In 1896, the historian Langdon records that the cross head in this monument was fixed to the top of a wall at Penwine Farm, 550m ENE of its present location. About 1956 the cross was moved from the wall to the garden at Penwine Farm and in 1969 it was erected in its present location on the modern lower shaft and base. The head is one of only two bearing the fleur de lys motif, the other being located 4km to the south-west at Washaway. This unusual motif is considered to have been the chosen emblem of Bodmin priory, which was a major landowner in the vicinity during the medieval period. The medieval cross base survives as a roughly shaped rectangular granite slab measuring 0.97m NNE-SSW by 0.83m WNW-ESE, lying flat on the ground from which it rises up to 0.16m high. At the centre is a rectangular mortice to receive the missing shaft; the mortice measures 0.27m NNE-SSW by 0.16m WNW-ESE. This cross base was formerly located approximately 25m to the WSW, immediately beside the crossroads, in its original position where it had once supported a wayside cross marking this significant junction. In 1947, the base was moved and built into a nearby hedgebank; subsequently it was moved to its present position lying flat on the rough verge. The post-medieval granite guide-post is situated 10.8m north east of the wayside cross. It is visible as a square-section granite shaft, 1.4m high, with sides 0.2m-0.22m wide, surmounted by a flat, square, granite slab whose sides are 0.46m long and 0.19m thick. The side faces of the slab are incised with the destinations along the four roads they face, as follows: to the north: `Camelford'; to the east: `Blisland' and `Liskeard'; to the south: `Bodmin', and to the west: `St Mabyn' and `Wadebridge'. A short iron stud with a corroded thread on its tip projects vertically from the centre of the slab's upper face. The guide post is situated 20m east of the crossroads itself, beside the road to Blisland. This is one of a distinctive group of later 18th and early 19th century guide posts of this design which occur on former turnpike roads in north Cornwall and around the periphery of Bodmin Moor. The metalled surface of the modern road passing north of the guide-post but within the area of the protective margin, is excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath is included. Both the medieval cross and the guide-post are also Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Other
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 17009,
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 17010,
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 17010.01,
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 0673 Source Date: Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 33/43/part 53; Pathfinder 1364 Source Date: 1989 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 06075 73376

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing