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Two bell barrows, two bowl barrows and a disc barrow which form the greater part of Rollestone Field linear round barrow cemetery

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Two bell barrows, two bowl barrows and a disc barrow which form the greater part of Rollestone Field linear round barrow cemetery

List entry Number: 1010904

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Wiltshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Shrewton

County:

District: Wiltshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Winterbourne Stoke

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 10-Mar-1925

Date of most recent amendment: 30-Mar-1995

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 10396

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods. Two of the best known and earliest recognised areas are around Avebury and Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site. The area of chalk downland which surrounds Stonehenge contains one of the densest and most varied groups of Neolithic and Bronze Age field monuments in Britain. Included within the area are Stonehenge itself, the Stonehenge cursus, the Durrington Walls henge, and a variety of burial monuments, many grouped into cemeteries. The area has been the subject of archaeological research since the 18th century when Stukeley recorded many of the monuments and partially excavated a number of the burial mounds. More recently, the collection of artefacts from the surfaces of ploughed fields has supplemented the evidence for ritual and burial by revealing the intensity of contemporary settlement and land-use. In view of the importance of the area, all ceremonial and sepulchral monuments of this period which retain significant archaeological remains are identified as nationally important. Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). They comprise closely spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including several different types of round barrow and occasionally associated with earlier long barrows. Where investigation beyond the round barrows has occurred, contemporary or later 'flat' burials between the barrow mounds have often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland England with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases they are clustered around other important contemporary monuments, as is the case both here and at Avebury. Often occupying prominent positions, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape, while their diversity and their longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities.

Bell barrows, the most visually impressive form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from 1600-1200 BC. They occur either in isolation or in round barrow cemeteries. They were constructed as single or multiple mounds covering burials often in pits and surrounded by an enclosure ditch. The burials in bell barrows appear to be those of aristocratic individuals and are also frequently accompanied by weapons, personal ornaments and pottery vessels. Bell barrows are rare nationally with only 250 examples known of which thirty are located within the Stonehenge area. Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a variety of burial practices. The burials, either inhumations or cremations, are sometimes accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally and at least 320 in the Stonehenge area. Disc barrows are funerary monuments dating from 1600-1200 BC. They occur either in isolation or in round barrow cemeteries. Disc barrows were constructed as a circular or oval area of level ground defined by a bank and internal ditch and containing one or more central or eccentrically located small, low mounds, covering burials, usually in pits. The burials are normally cremations and are frequently accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. Disc barrows are rare nationally with only 250 examples known of which 29 are located within the Stonehenge area. Despite four of the barrows being levelled by cultivation, partial excavation has shown that the five barrows forming the greater part of the Rollestone Field linear round barrow cemetery will contain archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument and landscape in which it was constructed. Aerial photographs have shown that the ditch fills survive undisturbed, while deposits located on the Bronze Age ground surface will survive beneath the area disturbed by cultivation.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes five round barrows forming the greater part of Rollestone Field linear round barrow cemetery. The barrows are aligned broadly east to west and are situated on a plateau which declines gradually south west to the valley of the River Till. The Rollestone Field linear round barrow cemetery contains ten round barrows in all, including seven bowl barrows, two bell barrows and a disc barrow. The two bell barrows, two of the bowl barrows and the disc barrow are contained within this monument. The other barrows are outliers to the cemetery located to the south west and the north east. Of the five within this monument, four of the barrow mounds are levelled and one, a bell barrow, survives as a slight earthwork 0.4m high and 12m in diameter. The bowl barrow mounds, and the mounds and berms of the bell and disc barrows are surrounded by ditches from which material was quarried during their construction. These have become infilled over the years but survive as buried features and are visible on aerial photographs from which the overall diameters of the bowl barrows are calculated to be 29m and 40m. The disc barrow, located just to the south of the main line of barrows has an overall diameter of 52m, while the two bell barrows are 29m and 43m overall diameter. The two bowl barrows and one of the bell barrows appear to have been confluent. Partial excavation of three of the barrows in the 19th century and of two of the barrows in 1958 revealed several cremations and inhumations together with accompanying grave goods. All fence posts are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Grinsell, L V, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire, (1957), 190
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 219
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 191
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 190
Grinsell, LV, The Victoria History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume V, (1957), 190
Hoare, R C, Ancient History of Wiltshire, (1812), 174
Hoare, R C, Ancient History of Wiltshire, (1812), 173-4
Hoare, R C, Ancient History of Wiltshire, (1812), 174
'Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society' in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, , Vol. 25, (1959), 274
Green, C, 'Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society' in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, , Vol. 25, (1959), 274

National Grid Reference: SU 09282 44128

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1010904 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 16-Dec-2017 at 07:20:38.

End of official listing