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Multivallate hillfort, 550m north of Callaly Castle

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Multivallate hillfort, 550m north of Callaly Castle

List entry Number: 1011094

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Callaly

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-Mar-1949

Date of most recent amendment: 25-May-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 20991

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Small multivallate hillforts are defined as fortified enclosures of varying shape, generally between 1 and 5ha in size and located on hilltops. They are defined by boundaries consisting of two or more lines of closely set earthworks spaced at intervals of up to 15m. These entirely surround the interior except on sites located on promontories, where cliffs may form one or more sides of the monument. They date to the Iron Age period, most having been constructed and occupied between the sixth century BC and the mid-first century AD. Small multivallate hillforts are generally regarded as settlements of high status, occupied on a permanent basis. Recent interpretations suggest that the construction of multiple earthworks may have had as much to do with display as with defence. Earthworks may consist of a rampart alone or of a rampart and ditch which, on many sites, are associated with counterscarp banks and internal quarry scoops. Access to the interior is generally provided by one or two entrances, which either appear as simple gaps in the earthwork or inturned passages, sometimes with guardrooms. The interior generally consists of settlement evidence including round houses, four and six post structures interpreted as raised granaries, roads, pits, gullies, hearths and a variety of scattered post and stake holes. Evidence from outside numerous examples of small multivallate hillforts suggests that extra-mural settlement was of a similar nature. Small multivallate hillforts are rare with around 100 examples recorded nationally. Most are located in the Welsh Marches and the south-west with a concentration of small monuments in the north-east. In view of the rarity of small multivallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the nature of settlement and social organisation within the Iron Age period, all examples with surviving archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.

The hillfort north of Callaly Castle survives reasonably well and is unusual in occupying such a low-lying location. It will contribute to our knowledge and understanding of the range and nature of later prehistoric settlement in the area.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes an enclosure of Iron Age date, situated on a near level site adjacent to the Callaly Burn; the ground falls away to the burn on the south side. The enclosure has an oval central platform measuring 60m by 40m surrounded by scarped banks 1.2m high and 5m wide. A gap in the east is an original entrance 10m wide. There are also slight traces of an inner bank on the east. Concentric to the platform and at a distance of 25m to the south, there is an outer work. This is formed by a ditch 10m wide and 2m deep. In front of the ditch there is a counter-scarp bank 5m wide and 0.1m high, which merges with the natural slopes of the ground. Outside of the ditch there is an external bank, 5m wide and 0.5m high.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Maclaughlan, H, Memoir S E B W S, (1864), 54
Other
NU 01 SE 13,

National Grid Reference: NU 05233 10443

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1011094 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 23-Nov-2017 at 09:35:53.

End of official listing