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Worlebury Camp: a large multivallate hillfort on Worlebury Hill

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Worlebury Camp: a large multivallate hillfort on Worlebury Hill

List entry Number: 1011260

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: North Somerset

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Weston-Super-Mare

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-Feb-1915

Date of most recent amendment: 15-Apr-1997

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 22841

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Large multivallate hillforts are defined as fortified enclosures of between 5ha and 85ha in area, located on hills and defined by two or more lines of concentric earthworks set at intervals of up to 15m. They date to the Iron Age period, most having been constructed and used between the sixth century BC and the mid-first century AD. They are generally regarded as centres of permanent occupation, defended in response to increasing warfare, a reflection of the power struggle between competing elites. Earthworks usually consist of a rampart and ditch, although some only have ramparts. Access to the interior is generally provided by two entrances although examples with one and more than two have been noted. These may comprise a single gap in the rampart, inturned or offset ramparts, oblique approaches, guardrooms or outworks. Internal features generally include evidence for intensive occupation, often in the form of oval or circular houses. These display variations in size and are often clustered, for example, along streets. Four- and six-post structures, interpreted as raised granaries, also occur widely while a few sites appear to contain evidence for temples. Other features associated with settlement include platforms, paved areas, pits, gullies, fencelines, hearths and ovens. Additional evidence, in the form of artefacts, suggests that industrial activity such as bronze- and iron-working as well as pottery manufacture occurred on many sites. Large multivallate hillforts are rare with around 50 examples recorded nationally. These occur mostly in two concentrations, in Wessex and the Welsh Marches, although scattered examples occur elsewhere. In view of the rarity of large multivallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the nature of social organisation within the Iron Age period, all examples with surviving archaeological potential are believed to be of national importance.

The large multivallate hillfort on Worlebury Hill is an outstanding example of its class. It survives well and is known from excavations to contain archaeological and environmental information relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed and later reused. This example is unusual in terms of its location as hillforts on this scale are rarely situated on coastal promontories. This hillfort is one of a number of well preserved examples surviving in the area. Together, these will provide a detailed insight into Iron Age society in the area, its economy and the political and social structure of which it was a part.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a large multivallate hillfort on Worlebury Hill, a carboniferous limestone promontory orientated east to west and overlooking Weston Bay to the south west, Sand Bay to the north east and an area of Levels to the east. The hillfort, known as Worlebury Camp, occupies the spur of Worlebury Hill and has a level sub-rectangular interior with maximum dimensions of 690m from east to west and 200m from north to south. In 1900 Dymand recorded the presence of 93 pits within the interior of the hillfort. These were found to contain human and animal remains. Other finds including an Iron Age axehead, iron spearheads and the beaded rim of a Glastonbury style pot were recovered by Warre during his investigations conducted in the 1850s. Surrounding the enclosed area are steep natural slopes to the south west and west and cliffs with associated terracing to the north. In the southern area, where the natural slopes are less steep, a single rampart defined the site. This included a stone built bank which survives up to 8m wide and c.0.8m high. The topography to the east is almost level with the hillfort and in order to compensate for this a multivallate system of defences was developed. This included a multiple set of ramparts of curvilinear form, comprising three large stone-built banks with four smaller ramparts beyond. The inner bank is the largest and is 10m wide and c.1.5m high. The six further banks become progressively smaller and vary in size from 9m wide and c.1.2m high in the west, to 2m wide and c.0.5m high in the east. All seven banks have external ditches from which material was quarried during their construction. The two innermost examples are 15m wide and c.1m deep, the remaining five become progressively smaller to the east; these range between 10m wide and 0.8m deep to 3m wide and c.0.5m deep. The maximum width of the ramparts at the eastern end of the monument is 100m. Neolithic flint arrowheads and flint axes recovered from the area suggest that the hilltop was occupied before the Iron Age. There is also a fragment of a rare cast bronze collar, dated to the Middle Bronze Age and which is likely to represent a German import. Following the period of Iron Age occupation and the construction of the hillfort, further occupation of the hilltop can be attested during the Romano-British period. During investigations at the site by Warre in the 1850s, a hoard of Roman coins dating to AD 450 were recovered along with a quantity of Roman pottery, glass beads and fragments of bronze. Excluded from the scheduling are all fence posts and benches although the ground beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Lawson, A J, 'Proc Som Arch Nat Hist Soc' in An Imported Bronze Collar From Somerset, , Vol. 120, (1976), 109
Other
Details of flintwork from the fort,
Details of pits recorded by Dymand,
Iron Age finds discovered by Warre,
Title: Plan of Worle Hill encampment Source Date: 1851 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: Map of site

National Grid Reference: ST 31282 62493

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1011260 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 14-Dec-2017 at 01:19:26.

End of official listing