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'Robin of Risingham' Roman Rock Carving

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: 'Robin of Risingham' Roman Rock Carving

List entry Number: 1012133

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Corsenside

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 28-Nov-1932

Date of most recent amendment: 04-Jan-1991

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 13433

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Roman religion had adopted wholesale the classical pantheon of the Greeks. To this the Romans grafted their own Italic or Estruscan beliefs frequently associated with fertility and vegetation, and thus with the conquest of Britain AD 43-410 brought to the province classical deities covering a wide range of functions. The indigenous population of Britain had already evolved a comprehensive mythology of its own, based partly on the worship of natural phenomena and partly on the worship of those aspects of life it considered vital - prosperity, fertility, war and death. Roman toleration of native religions enabled the deities of both conqueror and conquered to intermingle by means of a process of identification known as syncretism. The Roman god Mars, for example, originally an Italic deity associated with fertility and untamed woodlands, became linked with Celtic warrior deities such as Cocidius along Hadrian's Wall. Another Roman deity, Silvanus, was the woodland god worshipped under his own name and in identification with native gods in the northern frontier region. "Robin of Risingham" Roman rock carving is the only known example of a Roman statue cut out of solid rock in Northumberland. The bow and the hare would associate the figure with hunting and the depiction has been identified as the Roman deity Silvanus, god of woodland, in the guise of the Celtic god Cocidius. This carving illustrates well the process of syncretism as practised in the frontier region of northern England during the Roman occupation.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument consists of the lower half of a figure cut in relief on a rock outcrop. It is located in an alcove formed by a retaining wall on a steep incline immediately below a south-westerly spread of spoil from Woodburn Quarries. The carving, which has been identified as a native hunting god, was recorded in the early 18th century by Horsley and other antiquarians before being partially destroyed by the then landowner who thereby attempted to stop people wishing to view it from trespassing on his lands. Originally the figure stood 4ft high and had a panel, perhaps for an inscription, above his head. The god holds a bow and a small animal, possibly a hare, in his hands, and is dressed in a tunic and cloak, with a square block or altar opposite his right knee. A half size replica of the original was erected adjacent to the parent rock by the Redesdale Society in 1983.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Bruce, J C, The Roman Wall, (1978)
Hodgson, J, The Victoria History of the County of Northumberland, (1840)
Horsley, J, Britannia Romana, (1732)
Other
Carmicheal, R.H., AM 107, (1982)

National Grid Reference: NY 90143 85647

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1012133 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 12-Dec-2017 at 08:29:30.

End of official listing