Romano-British farmstead 200m west of Lambing Knott


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1013604

Date first listed: 17-Jan-1996


Ordnance survey map of Romano-British farmstead 200m west of Lambing Knott
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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This copy shows the entry on 10-Dec-2018 at 21:39:16.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Allerdale (District Authority)

Parish: Buttermere

National Park: LAKE DISTRICT

National Grid Reference: NY 19098 15582


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Despite some robbing of the enclosure wall to provide stone for a post-medieval wall and sheep pen, the monument survives reasonably well and remains largely unencumbered by modern development. It preserves considerable detail of the layout of the site and will facilitate any further study of Romano-British settlement patterns in the area.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes a Romano-British farmstead 200m west of Lambing Knott. It is located on gently sloping fellside close to the foot of the hill and includes a sub-circular enclosure containing two hut circles. The enclosure has internal measurements of approximately 43m north-south by 50m east-west and is defended by a turf-covered rubble wall which has been built up on the downslope south and west sides in an attempt to level the interior of the enclosure. The wall is best preserved on the south west where it measures up to 9m wide and 2m high on its outer side. There is an entrance measuring c.4m wide on the enclosure's south west side. At the centre of the enclosure there is a flat circular area measuring c.6m in diameter which has been cut into the hillslope on its north side and levelled on its downslope south side. A short distance to the north there is a similar flat circular area measuring 4m in diameter. Both of these features are interpreted as the site of hut circles. The enclosure wall has been partially disturbed on the eastern side to provide stone for a post-medieval wall and an attached sheep pen, both of which have now tumbled and are disused. The drystone wall and sheep pen are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27670

Legacy System: RSM


SMR No. 1221, Cumbria SMR, Lambing Knott, (1985)

End of official listing