Wayside cross called Burrow Cross 40m south east of Burrow Farm

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1013614

Date first listed: 03-Dec-1951

Date of most recent amendment: 30-Oct-1995

Map

Ordnance survey map of Wayside cross called Burrow Cross 40m south east of Burrow Farm
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Devon

District: East Devon (District Authority)

Parish: Stoke Canon

National Grid Reference: SX 93958 99099

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Despite restoration, the wayside cross called Burrow Cross 40m south east of Burrow Farm survives well and is likely to be in its original position. The cross is in a prominent position, forms an ancient boundary marker and has an unusual boutonne head.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

This monument includes a wayside cross called Burrow Cross, standing on a small triangular traffic island between two minor roads, 40m south east of Burrow Farm. The cross survives as a roughly cut socket stone, shaft and boutonne head. The socket stone is octagonal, roughly cut, square at the base and measures 0.92m long, 0.9m wide by 0.33m high. The shaft measures 0.35m wide by 0.3m thick and is rectangular in section with chamfered angles at the base. It tapers slightly upwards and at a height of 1.17m there is a joint where the boutonne head has been replaced. The boutonne head measures 0.57m wide at the arms, 0.25m wide at the head, is 0.2m thick and 0.15m high. The cross is leaning slightly but appears stable. The base was strengthened in the early 20th century. The boutonne head was found in a nearby hedge by Reverend F Robson in 1924 and the cross was restored to his memory. Excluded from the scheduling is the metalled road surface where it falls within the cross's protective margin, although the ground beneath the road surface is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27337

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Masson Phillips, E M, 'Transactions of the Devonshire Association' in The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon, Part 2, , Vol. 70, (1938), 317
Other
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, SX99NW-051, (1983)
MPP fieldwork by H. Gerrard, (1994)

End of official listing