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Bell barrow and pond barrow on Bacombe Hill

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Bell barrow and pond barrow on Bacombe Hill

List entry Number: 1013935

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Buckinghamshire

District: Aylesbury Vale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Wendover

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-Dec-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27131

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bell barrows, the most visually impressive form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating to the Early and Middle Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 1500-1100 BC. They occur either in isolation or in round barrow cemeteries and were constructed as single or multiple mounds covering burials, often in pits, and surrounded by an enclosure ditch. The burials are frequently accompanied by weapons, personal ornaments and pottery and appear to be those of aristocratic individuals, usually men. Bell barrows (particularly multiple barrows) are rare nationally, with less than 250 known examples, most of which are in Wessex. Their richness in terms of grave goods provides evidence for chronological and cultural links amongst early prehistoric communities over most of southern and eastern England as well as providing an insight into their beliefs and social organisation. As a particularly rare form of round barrow, all identified bell barrows would normally be considered to be of national importance.

Pond barrows are ceremonial or funerary monuments of the same period. The term `barrow' is something of a misnomer as, rather than a mound, they were constructed as regular circular depressions with an embanked rim. Where excavation has taken place, single or multiple pits or cists, sometimes containing human remains, have been discovered within the central depression. At one example a well-like shaft was revealed. Like bell barrows, pond barrows occur both singly and in round barrow cemeteries, although they are even more rare with only about 60 examples recorded nationally. As very few examples have been excavated they have a particulay high value for the future study of the nature and variety of belief in prehistoric communities. Due to their rarity, all identified pond barrows would normally be considered to be of national importance.

The bell barrow and the pond barrow on Bacombe Hill are well preserved and will retain significant archaeological information. Funerary remains surviving in buried features within the area of the barrows will illustrate the function of the monuments and the beliefs of the community which built them. The close association of the two barrows will provide stratigraphic evidence for the sequence and development of ritual practices, and the proximity of a third (bowl) barrow slightly to the west will allow further comparisons. The unusual form of the bell barrow, which utilises an outer scarp rather than an encircling ditch, is also of particular interest. The original intention, presumably to create an impressive landscape feature, is still realised. The site is accessible, and the views from its summit pose wider questions about the nature and location of associated Bronze Age settlement in this part of the Chiltern Hills.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes two Bronze Age barrows: a bell barrow located on the tip of a pronounced spur on Bacombe Hill, overlooking Wendover to the east and the Vale of Aylesbury to the north; and a pond barrow which is situated on the southern side of the bell barrow, about 10m from the central mound. The bell barrow mound is c.10m in diameter and 0.7m high, surrounded by a platform or berm which is encircled by an outward facing scarp. The berm is approximately 8m wide and slopes gently away from the mound on every side. The scarp, which is artificial, enhances the prominence of the barrow and its construction would have provided material for the mound. It is quite steep on the north and north eastern sides of the barrow (which overlooks the end of the spur), measuring some 4m in width and 1m high; although the gradient and angle are gradually reduced around the remaining circumference. The pond barrow lies within the southern part of the berm. It includes a circular depression, c.6m in diameter and 0.5m deep, enclosed by a shallow bank, the southern edge of which coincides with the upper part of the artificial scarp containing the berm. A number of worked flints, broadly contemporary with the two barrows, have been found in the vicinity of the monument; and a further barrow, a small bowl barrow, (the subject of a separate scheduling) lies some 55m to the south west, separated by a broad saddle across the spur.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Allcroft, A H, Earthworks of England, (1908)
Page, F (ed), The Victoria History of the County of Buckinghamshire, (1914)
Dyer, J F, 'Archaeological Journal' in Barrows of the Chilterns, (1959), 24
Dyer, J F, 'Archaeological Journal' in Barrows of the Chilterns, (1959), 23-24
Other
info from Chilterns Project Officer, Damant, C, Bacombe Hill, (1995)
Note of finds by Dr.J.Evans in 1970, 0011,
Site visit by M E Farley 1992, 0011,
visit notes - M Farley 1992, 0011,

National Grid Reference: SP 86169 07144

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1013935 .pdf

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End of official listing