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Three shielings on Foulbog Rigg; the westernmost of a group of seven

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Three shielings on Foulbog Rigg; the westernmost of a group of seven

List entry Number: 1014053

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Carlisle

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Askerton

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 13-Mar-1964

Date of most recent amendment: 11-Mar-1996

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 25170

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Shielings are small seasonally occupied huts which were built to provide shelter for herdsmen who tended animals grazing summer pasture on upland or marshland. These huts reflect a system called transhumance, whereby stock was moved in spring from lowland pasture around the permanently occupied farms to communal upland grazing during the warmer summer months. Settlement patterns reflecting transhumance are known from the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC) onwards. However, the construction of herdsmen's huts in a form distinctive from the normal dwelling houses of farms, only appears from the early medieval period onwards (from AD 450), when the practice of transhumance is also known from documentary sources and, notably, place-name studies. Their construction appears to cease at the end of the 16th century. Shielings vary in size but are commonly small and may occur singly or in groups. They have a simple sub- rectangular or ovoid plan normally defined by drystone walling, although occasional turf-built structures are known, and the huts are sometimes surrounded by a ditch. Most examples have a single undivided interior but two roomed examples are known. Some examples have adjacent ancillary structures, such as pens, and may be associated with a midden. Some are also contained within a small ovoid enclosure. Shielings are reasonably common in the uplands but frequently represent the only evidence for medieval settlement and farming practice here. Those examples which survive well and which help illustrate medieval land use in an area are considered to be nationally important.

The shielings on Foulbog Rigg are reasonably well preserved and retain significant archaeological deposits. They form part of a larger group of shielings in this valley which taken together will add greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the wider Border settlement and economy during this period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the remains of three shielings of medieval or post-medieval date which form part of a group situated in the valley of the Red Sike, a tributary of the River Irthing. Two of the shielings have been overlain by the third and are therefore earlier in date. The most westerly shieling appears as the footings of a rectangular building 6.8m by 3.1m with walls 0.5m thick. It is orientated east to west and is immediately adjacent to a second shieling of similar dimensions to the first but is orientated north to south. Only the eastern side of this shieling is now visible. These two shielings are both overlain by a third which is orientated east to west and has maximum dimensions of 6.6m by 3.1m. The shieling is divided by a wall into two rooms and there is an entrance through the centre of the south wall giving access to the larger of the two rooms. Attached to the western end there is a small annexe. A document of 13th century date indicates that the area was being used for sheep pasture, and further documents of the late 16th century describe a shielding system on the moor of which these shielings formed a part.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 14
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 28
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 15

National Grid Reference: NY 61475 77683

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 20-Nov-2017 at 07:29:48.

End of official listing