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Prehistoric linear boundary and Civil War fieldworks on north western Toll's Hill, St Mary's

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric linear boundary and Civil War fieldworks on north western Toll's Hill, St Mary's

List entry Number: 1015662

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Isles of Scilly

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Mary's

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 21-Jan-1999

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15477

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social development of early communities. Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands' settlement. The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post- medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post- medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard for the nation's shipping in the western approaches. The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of documentation, including several recent surveys. Civil War fieldworks are earthworks which were raised during military operations between 1642 and 1651 to provide temporary protection for infantry or to act as gun emplacements. The earthworks, which may have been reinforced with revetting or palisades, consist of earth and rubble platforms or banks and ditches. The Civil War fieldworks of the Isles of Scilly form a major part of the 150 surviving examples of fieldworks recorded nationally. They present an unusually complete system of fortifications from this period, both in the surviving range of fieldwork types represented and in the surviving pattern of their strategic disposition. Three main types of Civil War fieldwork have been recognised on the Isles of Scilly: breastworks, batteries and platforms; these could be deployed separately or in combination to form a defensive complex. Breastworks, which on the Isles of Scilly run beside the coastal cliff edge, consist of an earth and rubble bank, up to 4m wide and nearly 2m high but generally much smaller, usually accompanied by a ditch on the landward side. Sixteen surviving examples are recorded on the islands. Batteries are levelled areas or platforms, generally up to 20m across, situated on a hilltop or terraced into a slope to serve as gun emplacements. They vary considerably in size and shape and are usually partially or wholly enclosed by a bank, occasionally incorporating one or two outer ditches. Twenty batteries survive on the Isles of Scilly, several connected by breastworks. Adjacent to some batteries are examples of the third fieldwork type, platforms. These are partly terraced into, and partly out from, sloping ground and represent sites of lookouts and temporary buildings. Eight such platforms, measuring up to 12m by 8m in size, are known to survive on the islands. These fieldworks and fieldwork complexes were occasionally associated with other classes of defensive monument on the islands, including earthen artillery forts and blockhouses. The fieldworks were designed to defend the deep water approaches to the islands, especially St Mary's where most examples are found. Fieldworks are also known from Tresco, Bryher, Samson, St Agnes and Gugh. The circumstances of their construction are recorded in contemporary historical documents which indicate most were built by the Royalist forces which controlled the islands for the entire Civil War period except during 1646-8.

The prehistoric linear boundary and Civil War fieldworks on north western Toll's Hill survive substantially intact. The relationship of the linear boundary to the nearby hut circle and field system on Toll's Hill contributes to our wider view of land use and settlement organisation among prehistoric communities in the pre-submergence landscape of Scilly. Despite the truncation of the breastwork's eastern end, the Civil War defences in this scheduling display clearly the forms, situations and functions of the two types of fieldwork represented. Their immediate context on this well fortified spur in the heavily defended coastline facing Crow Sound, and their wider context as part of the extensive surviving Civil War defensive system in Scilly, demonstrate well the strategic methods employed by the 17th century forces and the function of these fieldwork types within them.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric linear boundary which descends the north west flank of Toll's Hill, a broad spur extending into Crow Sound from the north east coast of St Mary's in the Isles of Scilly. The scheduling also includes a Civil War breastwork and battery on the spur's north west coast, crossing the lower end of the prehistoric boundary. The linear boundary extends for 32m, running north down the spur's steep slope from a midslope crest and visible to the point where it is crossed by the much later breastwork close to the present coastal cliff. It is visible as a row of large slabs, up to 2m long, 1.1m high and 0.8m wide, with smaller blocks between. A 3m wide break occurs in its line south of the breastwork where the modern coastal path passes through it. Beyond this scheduling, a broadly contemporary hut circle is situated near the tip of the spur, 120m to the east, and low banks along the contour of the spur's upper slope to the south west of this boundary are considered to derive from a prehistoric field system. During the English Civil War, from 1642 to 1651 on Scilly, Toll's Hill was heavily fortified by virtue of its strategic position at the entrance to Crow Sound, a main maritime route into the archipeligo, and because of the vulnerable sheltered landing places offered by Tregear's Porth and Pelistry Bay, to the north west and south east of the spur respectively. The fieldworks in this scheduling provided cover against landings in Tregear's Porth and complement, beyond this monument, batteries on the crest and northern slope of the spur bringing Crow Sound within range of their guns, supported by storage platforms on the spur's south east flank and a further breastwork along the south east coast facing Pelistry Bay. The breastwork in this scheduling is visible as an earth and rubble bank parallel with, and close to, the coastal cliff and backed by a shallow ditch along its landward side. The breastwork extends over at least 65m ENE-WSW of the spur's coastline fronting Tregear's Porth, truncated on the east by the construction of the later quay and boathouses of New Quay. The bank is up to 2m wide, rising 0.7m high along the inner side and 0.8m high along the outer. Its accompanying ditch is silted to varying degrees and followed for part of its length by a modern path, but it is visible up to 2m wide and 0.4m deep. At the western end of the breastwork a small gun battery projects north from the line of the breastwork bank. It is formed as a trapezoidal earthen platform, 7.75m wide across its rear. Its rubble-revetted sides converge over 3m to a straight forward flank, 3.25m long and 1.4m high, faced by a wall of coursed large blocks up to 2m long and 0.6m high. The battery's outer walling is now exposed in the upper cliff section and supported behind a projecting shelf of uneroded subsoil. The upper cliff section also reveals occasional facing slabs, up to 0.8m high, in the outer face of the breastwork bank adjoining the east of the battery. The Civil War fieldworks on Toll's Hill are an integral part of a defensive system extending around the coast of St Mary's; the coast facing Crow Sound was especially heavily defended, the fortifications in this scheduling complementing a succession of batteries and breastworks from Mount Todden in the south east, along most of the coastline to Bar Point in the north west.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Ratcliffe, J, Sharpe, A CAU, Fieldwork in Scilly Autumn 1990, (1991)
Other
Parkes, C/CAU, AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7463, (1988)
Parkes, C/CAU, AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7464, (1988)
Parkes, C/CAU, AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7467, (1988)

National Grid Reference: SV 92664 12154

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 23-Nov-2017 at 07:18:33.

End of official listing