Dollerline medieval dispersed settlement 250m north of Bush Farm


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1015869

Date first listed: 26-Mar-1997


Ordnance survey map of Dollerline medieval dispersed settlement 250m north of Bush Farm
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Carlisle (District Authority)

Parish: Askerton

County: Cumbria

District: Carlisle (District Authority)

Parish: Bewcastle

National Grid Reference: NY 57321 74772


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Medieval rural settlement in England is marked by great diversity in form, size and type and the protection of archaeological remains needs to take these regional differences into account. To do this, England has been divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided into sub- Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have gradually evolved over the past 1500 years or more. This monument lies in the Cumbria-Solway sub-Province of the Northern and Western Province, an area characterised by dispersed hamlets and farmsteads but with some larger nucleated settlements in well-defined agriculturally favoured areas, established after the Norman conquest. Traces of seasonal settlements, or shielings, dominate the high, wet and windy uplands, where surrounding communities grazed their livestock during the summer months. The Borders local region comprises the great slope of land between the high Cheviots and the Solway, where hamlets and scattered farmsteads predominate, and where bastles and tower houses recall the social conditions of the Anglo- Scottish borders before the mid-17th century. The eastern part of the region, containing the wastes of Bewcastle Fells and Spadeadam, can be seen as a separate subdivision; it was occupied by shieling grounds during the Middle Ages and the Tudor period, and preserves the remains of associated settlement sites. Dollerline medieval dispersed settlement and its associated corn drying kiln survives well, remains unencumbered by modern development, and will retain significant archaeological deposits. It is a good example of this class of monument located in the Border Region and will add greatly to our understanding of the wider border settlement and economy during the medieval period.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of Dollerline medieval dispersed settlement and an associated corn drying kiln. It is located on flat ground south of Kirk Beck, 250m north of Bush Farm, and includes the turf covered remains of two houses, a rectangular enclosure, a short length of wall or earth bank, and a corn drying kiln. The main house has its long axis aligned approximately east-west and measures 13.7m by 11m with walls 1.3m wide and up to 1m high. It overlies the north east corner of a rectangular enclosure measuring c.15m by 11m which is bounded by a low earth bank up to 0.1m high. A short length of wall or bank of the same height protrudes westwards from the western side of the enclosure. Immediately to the south of the main house are the remains of a second house or outbuilding of slighter construction measuring c.12m by 10m externally with walls 1m wide and up to 0.5m high. North of the main house, and constructed on the edge of the bluff above Kirk Beck, are the remains of a corn drying kiln associated with the settlement. It survives as a turf covered oval mound of stones measuring 6m by 4.5m and up to 0.5m high with a large central hollow and a splayed stoke hole on its northern side. Its presence indicates the existence of small scale arable cultivation in the area during the medieval period. The settlement is depicted on a map dated 1603 accompanying the Gilsland Survey. In 1832 it was described as ruinous. A post and wire fence on the monument's eastern side is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27774

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 47-8
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 47-8

End of official listing