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Holy well at Laneast

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Holy well at Laneast

List entry Number: 1017048

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Laneast

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 29-Oct-1999

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 31858

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Holy wells are water sources with specifically Christian associations. The custom of venerating springs and wells as sacred sites is also known to have characterised pre-Christian religions in Britain and, although Christian wells have been identified from as early as the 6th century AD, it is clear that some holy wells originated as earlier sacred sites. The cult of holy wells continued throughout the medieval period. Its condemnation at the time of the Reformation (c.1540) ended new foundations but local reverence and folklore customs at existing holy wells often continued, in some cases to the present day. The holy wells sometimes functioned as sites for baptism but they were also revered for less tangible reasons, some of which may have had origins in pre- Christian customs, such as folklore beliefs in the healing powers of the water and its capacity to effect a desired outcome for future events. Associated rituals often evolved, usually requiring the donation of an object or coin to retain the 'sympathy' of the well for the person seeking its benefits. At their simplest, holy wells may be unelaborated natural springs with associated religious traditions. Structural additions may include lined well shafts or conduit heads on springs, often with a tank to gather the water at the surface. The roofing of walled enclosures to protect the water source and define the sacred area created well houses which may be simple, unadorned small structures closely encompassing the water source, or larger buildings, decorated in the prevailing architectural style and facilitating access with features such as steps to the water source and open areas with stone benching where visitors might shelter. At their most elaborate, chapels, and sometimes churches, may have been built over the well or adjacent well house. The number of holy wells is not known but estimates suggest at least 600 nationally. They provide important information on the nature of religious beliefs and practices and on the relationship between religion and the landscape during the medieval period.

The holy well at Laneast survives well, though the roof which was collapsing inwards has been carefully rebuilt. The flat arched entrance doorway suggests a 15th or 16th century date for the well house which is built in a natural hollow at the head of a stream, and contains a constant supply of clear running water. Water from the well is still used for baptisms in the nearby church at Laneast.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval holy well situated in a hollow at the head of a stream at Laneast in north Cornwall. The well is situated in a natural hollow, which has possibly been enhanced, as there is an abrupt change of slope to the north, east and west of the well. The holy well, which is Listed Grade II, survives as a small stone building constructed over a well basin. The structure measures 2.57m high, by 2.1m wide and 2.2m long, while the well chamber inside it measures 1.14m long by 0.9m wide and is 2.26m high. The well house is constructed of coursed greenstone walls, with a flat arched granite entrance suggesting a 15th to 16th century date for the structure. The entrance is recessed in the south face, the sides of the doorway are chamfered, and there are two iron hinges on the west side on which is hung a modern wooden door. The greenstone roof is capped with three large overlapping slate slabs. It is probable that the roof was originally pointed, but illustrations of 1854 and 1891 show it in its present form. The well is orientated north-south with the entrance in the south. The well basin within the chamber contains a 0.36m depth of clear water, which flows out through the well entrance over a lipped stone and under a slate slab to form a stream to the south. This slab is immediately in front of the entrance and gives access to the well. The ceiling of the well chamber is of slate. The historian Quiller Couch recorded that this well was known as the `wishing well' or the `Jordan well'and that it was consulted for `intimations of the future'. M and L Quiller Couch in 1891 recorded that the well itself was used for butter making and that water from the well was used for baptisms at Laneast church 160m to the north west. By 1996 the roof was slumping inwards and the pointing in poor repair. In 1997 the roof was rebuilt and the walls repointed. A new, stout, wooden door was made for the entrance. When this work was carried out evidence was found that the well was constructed of reused stone, stones with their worked faces hidden were built into the roof, and other worked stones were visible in the walls. It is considered probable that the well was built of surplus, rejected or old masonry when alterations were taking place at the church. The fabric and construction of the well is very similar to the church at Laneast.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Preston-Jones, A, Attwell, D, Laneast Holy Well, (1997)
Quiller Couch, L, Quiller Couch, M, Ancient and Holy Wells of Cornwall, (1894)
Other
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 28/38; Pathfinder Series 1326 Source Date: 1989 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 22915 83885

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1017048 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 12-Dec-2017 at 08:27:34.

End of official listing