Romano-British farmstead 650m south east of Whingill


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1017865

Date first listed: 18-Mar-1998


Ordnance survey map of Romano-British farmstead 650m south east of Whingill
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1017865 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 12-Dec-2018 at 16:11:46.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden (District Authority)

Parish: Hartley

National Grid Reference: NY 79215 09155


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Despite some minor stock erosion the Romano-British farmstead 650m south east of Whingill survives reasonably well and is a good example of this class of monument. It is one of a number of similar monuments located on the limestone hillsides of east Cumbria and will facilitate any further study of Romano- British settlement patterns in this area.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes a Romano-British farmstead located on a gently sloping south facing hillside 650m south east of Whingill. It includes a cluster of three attached enclosures, one of which contains the earthwork remains of a hut circle while the other two enclosures would have functioned as stock pens. A boundary wall of earth and rubble up to 4m wide and 1m high forms the west, south and much of the eastern sides of the farmstead whilst the northern side is terraced into the hillside. The southern enclosure is sub-rectangular in plan and measures approximately 70m by 20m internally with an entrance in the mid-point of its southern side. An irregularly-shaped enclosure with maximum dimensions of 60m by 40m lies immediately to the north east; there is an entrance on its western side and a second entrance leading from the attached enclosure to the south west. The hut circle lies in a small sub-oval enclosure attached to the north west side of the irregularly-shaped enclosure. This enclosure has been terraced into the hillside and has maximum dimensions of approximately 38m by 16m. The hut circle is centrally placed within the enclosure and measures about 12m in diameter with a turf-covered stone wall up to 0.3m high.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27803

Legacy System: RSM


AP , Manchester University,
SMR No. 3445, Cumbria SMR, Hartley, (1985)

End of official listing