Hadrian's Wall between the M6 motorway and the property boundaries to the east of Houghton Road in wall mile 64


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1017942

Date first listed: 12-Dec-1928

Date of most recent amendment: 23-Nov-1998


Ordnance survey map of Hadrian's Wall between the M6 motorway and the property boundaries to the east of Houghton Road in wall mile 64
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1017942 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 17-Dec-2018 at 03:37:04.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Carlisle (District Authority)

Parish: Stanwix Rural

National Grid Reference: NY 41590 58635


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through designation as a World Heritage Site. The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was recognised by the Romans during their early campaigns through northern England and into Scotland in the second half of the first century AD. At this time a military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts. Subsequently the Romans largely withdrew from Scotland and there is evidence that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a frontier by the start of the second century AD. This position was consolidated in the early second century by the construction of a substantial frontier work, Hadrian's Wall, under the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius, subsequently attempted to establish the boundary further north, between the Clyde and the Firth of Forth, but by c.AD 160 growing unrest amongst the native populations of northern Britain and pressures elsewhere in the Empire caused a retraction back to the Hadrianic line. Hadrian's Wall was then the frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.AD 400 when the Roman armies withdrew from Britain. Stretching over 70 miles from coast to coast, Hadrian's Wall was a continuous barrier built of stone in the east and, initially, of turf in the west. The stone wall was originally designed to be ten Roman feet wide and sections of this width are termed broad wall. A change of plan shortly after construction began led to a reduction in the width of the Wall to eight Roman feet, such sections being termed narrow wall. Today, stretches of both wall types survive, including some sections of narrow wall built on broad wall foundations. For most of its length a substantial ditch on the northern side provided additional defence. Where the Wall crossed rivers, bridges were constructed to carry it across. Construction of the Wall was organised and executed by legionary soldiers. From the beginning the barrier was planned to comprise more than just a curtain wall. At regularly spaced intervals of about a mile along its length lay small walled fortlets known as milecastles. These were attached to the southern side of the Wall and most had a gateway through the Wall to the north. Hence they controlled crossing points through the Wall as well as affording space for a small stable garrison. Between the milecastles were two equally spaced towers known as turrets. Together the milecastles and turrets provided bases from which the curtain wall could be watched and patrolled. Both the turrets and milecastles are thought to have been higher than the Wall itself to provide suitable observation points. It is often assumed that a platform existed on the Wall so that troops could actually patrol along the wall top; it is however far from certain that this was the case. At the western end of the Wall a system of towers, small fortlets and palisade fences extended the frontier system another 30 miles or so down the Cumbrian coast and helped control shipping moving across the estuary of the Solway Firth. As originally planned, and apart from whatever space there was in the milecastles, provision for the accommodation of garrison troops manning the Wall was left with the line of forts which already lay along the Stanegate. At some point a fundamental change of plan took place and forts were constructed along the line of the Wall itself. There are now known to have been 16 forts either attached to the Wall or in close association with it. Some overlay earlier features such as turrets or milecastles. At this stage another linear element, the vallum, was also added to the defensive system to the south of the Wall. This was a broad flat-bottomed ditch flanked by a pair of linear banks. It shadows the course of the Wall for almost all its length, sometimes lying very close to it but sometimes up to a kilometre away from it. The vallum's main function was to act as a barrier to restrict access to the Wall from the south. It also had a function in linking the forts along the Wall with a method of lateral communication. When the forts were placed along the wall line no provision was made for a road to link them. This situation was clearly found impracticable and a metalled track was therefore provided in places along the vallum between the north mound and the ditch. Later, after the withdrawal back to the Hadrianic line from the Antonine Wall, various refurbishments were made throughout the frontier line. At this stage a new linear feature was added: the `Military Way'. This was a road linking all elements of the Wall defence, running from fort to fort within the area bounded by the Wall and the vallum. Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its armies from the Wall and Britain. It now survives in various states of preservation. In places, especially in the central section, the Stone Wall still remains several courses high and the attached forts, turrets and milecastles are also clearly indentifiable. Earthwork features such as the ditch, vallum and Military Way also survive well in places. Elsewhere the Stone Wall has been virtually robbed out and only its foundations survive beneath the present ground surface. Similarly, stretches of the earthwork remains, including sections of the Turf Wall, have been levelled or infilled and now only survive as buried features. Although some sections of the frontier system no longer survive visibly, sufficient evidence does exist for its position to be fairly accurately identified throughout most of its length.

Hadrian's Wall and its associated features between the M6 motorway and the property boundaries to the east of Houghton Road survive well as buried remains and will contain significant information on the development of the frontier system over time.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the section of Hadrian's Wall and its associated features between the west side of the M6 motorway in the east and the property boundaries to the east of Houghton Road in the west.

Hadrian's Wall survives as a buried feature throughout this section with no remains visible above ground. The course of the Wall has been confirmed by observations by Simpson in 1941 during the construction of Hadrian's Camp, when the flag footings and the first course of masonry of the stone wall was found to survive. At the same time the ditch north of the Wall was exposed and excavated, its depth being recorded as 3.96m. Subsequent excavations in 1961 by Colonel Fane Gladwin found that the building of the World War II army camp had not affected the remains of the Wall which lay approximately 0.25m below the surface of the modern turf cover. Hadrian's Wall in this section was initially built of turf before it was rebuilt in stone in the second half of the second century AD, and the 1961 excavations recorded remains of the turf surviving below the remains of the stone wall.

Milecastle 64 was located in 1962 during excavations by Fane Gladwin, 104m west of Brunstock Beck. It was of short axis type, being wider east-west than north-south, and measured internally 17.83m across east-west and 14.63m north- south. Its walls were found to have been extensively robbed but part of the north wall survived as far as the first course of facing stones. The north gateway, which was 3m wide, had been blocked at some stage. A cobbled road 5m wide ran through the centre of the milecastle, and outside the west wall was a cobbled area. The remains of Milecastle 64 survive below the turf cover as buried remains.

The precise location of turret 64a has not yet been confirmed but its remains are expected, on the basis of the usual spacing, to survive approximately 150m west of Centurion's Walk, where the Wall changes direction.

The course of the Roman road, known as the Military Way, which ran along the corridor between the Wall and vallum linking forts, milecastles and turrets, has not yet been confirmed in this section. However a cobbled road at least 9m wide was found in the excavations of 1961 by Fane Gladwin to the rear of the Wall which was thought to be medieval in date, but which may have been utilising the line of the Military Way. The remains of the Military Way are expected to survive below the turf cover as buried remains.

All road surfaces, property boundaries and buildings are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 28478

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Caruana, I, Fane, G, Col, P F, 'TCWAAS' in Excavations on the Roman Wall at Hadrian's Camp, Carlisle, (1980), 17-22
Caruana, I, Fane, G, Col, P F, 'TCWAAS' in Excavations on the Roman Wall at Hadrian's Camp, Carlisle, (1980), 17-22

End of official listing