This browser is not fully supported by Historic England. Please update your browser to the latest version so that you get the best from our website.

St Martin's collegiate church and medieval standing cross, Lowthorpe

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: St Martin's collegiate church and medieval standing cross, Lowthorpe

List entry Number: 1018404

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: East Riding of Yorkshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Harpham

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 11-Dec-1951

Date of most recent amendment: 02-Dec-1998

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 30143

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

The term college is used to describe a variety of different types of establishment whose communities of secular clergy shared a degree of common life less strictly controlled than that within a monastic order. Although some may date to as early as the tenth century, the majority of English colleges were founded in the 14th or 15th centuries. Most were subsequently closed down under the Chantries Act of 1547. Colleges of the prebendal or portional type were set up as secular chapters, both as an alternative to the structure of contemporary monastic houses and to provide positions for clerics whose services the monastic establishment wished to reward. Some barons followed suit by setting up colleges within their castles, while others were founded by the Crown for the canons who served royal free chapels. Foundations of this type were generally staffed by prebends or portioners (priests taking their income from the tithes, or other income deriving from a village or manor). After 1300, chantry colleges became more common. These were establishments of priests, financed from a common fund, whose prime concern was to offer masses for the souls of the patron and the patron's family. They may also have housed bedesmen (deserving poor and elderly) and provided an educational facility which in some cases eventually came to dominate their other activities. From historical sources it is known that approximately 300 separate colleges existed during the early medieval and medieval period; of these, 167 were in existence in 1509, made up of 71 prebendal or portional colleges, 64 chantry colleges and 32 whose function was primarily academic. In view of the importance of colleges in contributing to our understanding of ecclesiastical history, and given the rarity of known surviving examples, all identified colleges which retain surviving archaeological remains are considered to be nationally important.

St Martin's collegiate church is well documented and retains significant upstanding medieval fabric which can be related to that documented history. Its importance is heightened by the survival of features that were often removed or covered over during 19th century restoration. This includes fragments of medieval wall plaster and mortar as well as architectural features such as the piscina. The monument's importance is heightened by the inclusion of a standing cross. These were mostly erected during the medieval period (mid-10th to mid-16th centuries) and served a variety of functions. In churchyards they acted as stations for outside processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining the rights of sanctuary. They were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property or settlements. Crosses in market places may also have helped to validate transactions. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions and attitudes. In particular many cross heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without heads, are thought to survive. The oldest and most basic form is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly into the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross in which the shaft is set into a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps. Where the cross head survives it can take a variety of forms, the more elaborate examples dating to the 15th century. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in of near their original location, are considered to be worthy of protection. The example within the easternmost bay of St Martin's Church is thought to be 14th century in date. Its carving is well preserved and it is a good example of its type.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the ruined and buried remains of the collegiate church of St Martin, Lowthorpe, together with a stone cross identified as the Old Market Cross from Kilham. The nave of the medieval church, restored in the 19th century, is still in ecclesiastical use and is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included. The church is a Grade II* Listed Building. The earliest reference to a church in Lowthorpe is in the Domesday Book which lists a church as part of one of the three manors with land in the village. Its pre-conquest origins are further supported by the find in 1936 of part of an early 11th century cross buried in the churchyard. The main part of the surviving church has a 13th century four bayed nave, although this was restored in the 19th century. By 1312, Lowthorpe had acquired a chapel at Ruston and in 1333 the lord of the manor, Sir John de Heslerton, was granted a licence to found a college with a master and six chantry priests. The contemporary documentation details the regulations of the college and specified that the priests' accommodation should include a hall, chambers, kitchen, bakehouse, brewhouse and loft. In addition to the priests, the college was also to include three clerks. The eastward extension of the church, the building of a three bayed chancel, is thought to date to the establishment of the college. In 1364 Thomas de Heslerton founded a seventh chantry and gave his property in Lowthorpe to the college; eight years later Simon de Heslerton gave a further grant of land. Several surviving deeds of this time show that the college had become an important local landowner, with the college's prosperity demonstrated by the addition of the tower at the west end of the church in the late 14th or early 15th century. At the Dissolution of the chantries in 1548, the fortunes of the college had declined, leaving a master, four priests and two clerks, and it is considered that the chancel had already been shortened by one bay by this time. St Martin's was converted into a parish church with the master remaining as rector and the priests pensioned off. In the 17th century a mullioned window was inserted into the east wall and some time later the church was shortened further by the construction of a brick wall behind the chancel arch, reducing the church to the medieval nave. The part of the church that remains in use was restored in 1859, when the south porch was added. The ruined part of the chancel was consolidated in the late 1980s. The church is simple in form with no side chapels, aisles, or transepts. The nave is of four narrow bays, in total about the same length as the two standing bays of the chancel, and thus the nave would have been shorter than the earlier three bayed chancel. The north and south walls of the shortened two bayed chancel survive to eaves height along most of their length, with the east gable wall surviving to a slightly higher level. The north wall contains a pair of three light early 14th century windows with high quality reticulated tracery, now blocked with brick. A third similar window is in the western bay of the south wall, with a small priests' door occupying the east side of the eastern bay. The east wall, which internally can be seen to have been inserted, contains a large pointed Gothic window, blocked with stone with an inserted mullioned window which in turn has been blocked. Internally there is a reset trefoil headed piscina just inside from the priests' door on the east wall. Also internally there is a small blocked window high up above the priests' door which cannot be identified externally, implying that the outer face of the south wall was rebuilt covering the window. At the base of the south wall there is a plinth course which ends at the eastern end of the westernmost chancel bay. This is believed to mark the extent of the chancel before the early 14th century expansion of the church. The two angle buttresses on the east wall retain part of the framing for another pair of windows which would have been part of the easternmost bay of the chancel which is considered to have become disused before the Dissolution. Internally in the south buttress there is a large rectangular niche which is thought to be the remains of a sedilia. The extent of the easternmost bay can be seen by a platform that extends eastwards into the churchyard for 6m beyond the standing east wall after which the ground surface drops away by about 0.2m. Within this platform, which is now part of the churchyard, there are a number of Victorian grave memorials, together with a carved sandstone medieval standing cross set centrally next to the east wall. This stone cross, which is also Listed Grade II*, stands 2m tall with a pillar tapering from 36cm by 24cm to 25cm by 24cm capped with a Maltese cross head 48cm across. The cross appears to be set directly into the ground with no socket stone or other base visible. The cross head's central rosette is very similar in design to those on the chancel arch within the church, although the cross is reputed to be the resited market cross from Killham, the base for which is thought to lie on Rudston village green. The cross is said to have been moved to stop people in Kilham congregating during an outbreak of plague. The church is now the only identifiable evidence for the medieval college. Further college buildings are likely to have stood around it, but the ground here remains in active use for burial and thus is not included in the scheduling. The above ground part of the church which is still roofed, being the medieval nave with the later brick built sanctury at its east end, the tower and south porch, are still in ecclesiastical use and are thus excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features is included. The Victorian grave memorials are also excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Mann, F, 'Guide to local studies in East Yorkshire' in Medieval Church History, (1985), 58-74
Other
NB confuses 2 crosses, SMR, 3658,
SMR, 969,

National Grid Reference: TA 07914 60809

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1018404 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 19-Nov-2017 at 05:44:00.

End of official listing