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Coal mining remains 350m north west and 520m north of New Works village

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Coal mining remains 350m north west and 520m north of New Works village

List entry Number: 1018461

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Telford and Wrekin

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Little Wenlock

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Jun-2000

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 31753

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Coal has been mined in England since Roman times, and between 8,000 and 10,000 coal industry sites of all dates up to the collieries of post-war nationalisation are estimated to survive in England. Three hundred and four coal industry sites, representing approximately 3% of the estimated national archaeological resource for the industry have been identified as being of national importance. This selection, compiled and assessed through a comprehensive survey of the coal industry, is designed to represent the industry's chronological depth, technological breadth and regional diversity. Extensive coal workings are typical of the medieval and post-medieval coal industry, although this style of exploitation continued into the early 20th century in some marginal areas which were worked on a very small scale with little capital investment. In its simplest form extensive workings took coal directly from the outcrop, digging closely spaced shallow pits, shafts or levels which did not connect underground. Once shallower deposits had been exhausted, deeper shafts giving access to underground interconnecting galleries were developed. The difficulties of underground haulage and the need for ventilation encouraged the sinking of an extensive spread of shafts in the area worked. The remains of extensive coal workings typically survive as surface earthworks directly above underground workings. They may include a range of prospecting and exploitation features, including areas of outcropping, adits and shaft mounds (circular or sub-circular spoil heaps normally with a directly associated depression marking the shaft location). In addition, some sites retain associated features such as gin circles (the circular track used by a horse powering simple winding or pumping machinery), trackways and other structures like huts. Some later sites also retain evidence of the use of steam power, typically in the form of engine beds or small reservoirs. Extensive coal mines vary considerably in form, depending on the underlying geology, their date, and how the workings were originally organised. Sites can include several hundred shafts spread over an extensive area. Coal occurs in significant deposits throughout large parts of England and this has given rise to a variety of coalfields extending from the north of England to the Kent coast. Each region has its own history of exploitation, and characteristic sites range from the small, compact collieries of north Somerset to the large, intensive units of the north east. A sample of the better preserved sites, illustrating the regional, chronological and technological range of extensive coal workings, together with rare individual component features are considered to merit protection.

The coal mining remains 350m north west and 520m north of New Works village survive well as an area worked intensively, on a small scale, over a period of at least 500 years. The earthworks and buried remains of mining activities are well-preserved and diverse. They will provide valuable information on technology, such as methods of drainage and winding in the developing coal industry, and will retain artefactual evidence of mining on the site. Machinery remains, such as the engine bed and windlass, will further contribute to an understanding of daily operations on this and other coal mining sites. The loss of neighbouring coal mining landscapes in a recent programme of opencasting, increases the value of this site as a representation of the coal industry's development up to the 20th century.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument, which lies 350m north west and 520m north of New Works village, includes the earthworks, buried remains and machinery of an area of coal and ironstone mining which was intensively worked from at least the 14th century. It lies within two separate areas of protection.

Coal seams run very close to the surface at the site, and were initially worked from shallow surface workings. Coal was also extracted from shafts in the medieval period and later; a vertical shaft to the coal seam was worked out in all directions, giving a bell-shaped profile. Pillar-and-stall workings (where large blocks of coal were left in place to support the roof of the mine) were also used. Later mining worked the seams from deeper shafts, using horse power and then steam engines for power winding and drainage. The north eastern part of the site includes numerous shallow depressions, which archaeological excavation by Lancaster University in 1993-4 has shown to be opencut workings. These extend over a considerable area, and a sample area in the central northern part of the site is included in the scheduling in order to provide evidence of this type of working. Deeper cuts and shafts driven in later years disturbed the spoil of earlier workings, creating a sequence of complex earthworks which preserves evidence of early mining technology as buried remains. This is particularly evident in an area of elevated spoil, whose surface retains several small mounds up to 1m in height. The deeper shafts typical of 18th and 19th century mining are visible as shaft mounds, with collars of spoil surrounding a central depression. An engine bed from this period survives, on which stood a steam engine for winding or pumping. The engine bed and buried remains in the vicinity retain valuable technological information about later coal mining on the site.

The central and southern parts of the monument are dominated by a large flat- topped tip, and also include the remains of intensive small-scale coal mining, with evidence of continued use over a long period. Numerous subcircular hollows with associated mounds of spoil are visible in the south east, and these are believed to be the surface expression of medieval mining remains.

The area around NGR SJ 6600 0885 includes very many depressions, with spoil heaps and an area of subsidence believed to be the result of pillar-and- stall workings, dating to the late medieval period. A windlass found near a shaft at NGR SJ 6626 0885 is a typical component of simple winding mechanisms, usually driven by horse power and typical of 18th century mining. A spoil heap at NGR SJ 6595 0891 includes timbers, ironwork and a concrete platform dating to the late 19th century. The north western part of the monument includes further shaft mounds, and some shallow depressions thought to result from trial excavations or prospecting to locate further coal deposits.

Much of the site is crossed by a network of broad tracks which are believed to retain the buried remains of wooden tramways, used to transport the coal from the mines. These remains will contribute to an understanding of 18th and 19th century transport systems at coal mines.

All fence posts, modern walls, track surfaces and pylons are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Lancaster University Archaeological Unit, , Shortwood, (1994)
'Lancaster University Archaeological Unit' in Coal mines, and associated workings, (1994)
Other
Ref 04503, Shropshire SMR, West of New Works Lane, (1993)
Report on survey and excavation, Lancaster University Archaeological Unit, West of New Works Lane: Shortwood, (1994)
Title: Source Date: 1902 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: 25"
Title: Shortwood Source Date: 1882 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: 25

National Grid Reference: SJ 66035 08790, SJ 66275 09076

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1018461 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 17-Dec-2017 at 05:39:42.

End of official listing