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Maulds Meaburn medieval settlement, part of its associated medieval open field system and a mill race

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Maulds Meaburn medieval settlement, part of its associated medieval open field system and a mill race

List entry Number: 1018934

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Crosby Ravensworth

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 11-Jan-1965

Date of most recent amendment: 18-Jul-2000

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 32844

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have gradually evolved during the past 1500 years or more. This monument lies in the Cumbria-Solway sub-Province of the Northern and Western Province, an area characterised by dispersed hamlets and farmsteads, but with some larger nucleated settlements in well-defined agriculturally favoured areas, established after the Norman Conquest. Traces of seasonal settlements, or shielings, dominate the high, wet and windy uplands, where surrounding communities grazed their livestock during the summer months. The Eden Valley local region is a rich agricultural lowland ringed by mountain pastures. It is densely settled with small market towns, villages, hamlets and isolated farmsteads. Medieval castles and monasteries, a multitude of earthwork sites and the distinctive mix of Celtic, Scottish, English, Scandinavian and Norman place-names all testify to the ancient and long sustained occupation of this important region.

Medieval villages were organised agricultural communities, sited at the centre of a parish or township, that shared resources such as arable land, meadow and woodland. Village plans varied enormously, but where they survive as earthworks their most distinguishing features include roads and minor tracks, platforms on which stood houses and other buildings such as barns, enclosed crofts and small enclosed paddocks. They frequently included the parish church within their boundaries, and as part of the manorial system most villages included one or more manorial centres which may also survive as visible remains as well as below ground deposits. In the northern and western province of England medieval villages occurred infrequently amid areas of otherwise dispersed settlement and good examples are therefore proportionally infrequent. Thus their archaeological remains are one of the most important sources for understanding rural life in the five centuries or more following the Norman Conquest. Medieval villages were supported by a communal system of agriculture based on large, unenclosed open arable fields. These large fields were subdivided into strips (known as lands) which were allocated to individual tenants. The cultivation of these strips with heavy ploughs pulled by oxen-teams produced long, wide ridges, and where it survives the resultant `ridge and furrow' is the most obvious physical indication of the open field system. Individual strips or lands were laid out in groups known as furlongs defined by terminal headlands at the plough turning points and lateral grass banks. Furlongs were in turn grouped into large open fields. Well-preserved ridge and furrow, especially in its original context adjacent to village earthworks, is both an important source of information about medieval agrarian life and a distinctive contribution to the historic landscape. It is usually now covered by hedges or walls of subsequent field enclosure. A watermill uses the gravitational force of water to turn a paddled wheel, the energy thus generated in the axle of the wheel enabling the operation of various kinds of machinery. The force of water is generally provided by the construction of a mill race, that is, an artificial channel or leat along which water flows from a stream. The flow of water from the main watercourse to the wheel is regulated by sluices. The spent water returns to the main stream via a tailrace. As a common feature of the rural and urban landscape, watermills and their associated water management systems played an important role in the development of the technology and economy and many of those retaining significant original features will merit protection. Despite being partly overlain by post-medieval buildings, a substantial proportion of the earthworks of Maulds Meaburn medieval settlement, its associated open field system and the mill race survive well. It is a good example of this class of monument in the Eden Valley local region and will add greatly to our understanding of the wider settlement and economy during the medieval period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of Maulds Meaburn medieval settlement, together with part of its associated medieval open field system and a mill race. It is in six separate areas of protection. Although the date of the first settlement at Maulds Meaburn is unknown it is unlikely to have pre-dated the late 11th century Norman conquest of the region. Documentary sources indicate that Maud de Veteripont, wife of the lord of Appleby, was given the estate of Meaburn in about 1174; however, the first specific reference to Maulds Meaburn is in about 1210. The settlement remains in occupation today and the areas of protection include those parts which were abandoned as it contracted to its present size, but which are still identifiable. The plan of the medieval settlement of Maulds Meaburn is of a type familiar to this part of Cumbria in which two parallel lines of tofts or houses with crofts or garden areas to the rear face onto a village green. Behind the crofts were narrow back lanes and at Maulds Meaburn the north-south axis of the village green is paralleled by back lanes to the west and east. Beyond these back lanes lay the communal open fields where the crops were grown, while to the south the village green broadened out into a driftway leading south eastwards to the common land where the cattle would have been grazed. Where not covered by post-medieval buildings the well-preserved earthwork remains of the medieval settlement consist of abandoned tofts (house plots), and associated earthwork enclosures (or crofts) which pre-date the existing post-medieval field system. On the western side of the village green the medieval building line lies behind and upslope of the present structures. Here there is a well-preserved area of tofts and crofts now separated by modern farm expansion into two separate areas centred at approximately NY62401629 and NY62381654. Behind these tofts and crofts is a back lane, and beyond this are a series of strip fields containing well-preserved ridge and furrow running down to a small stream which provided each close with a water supply. A short distance to the north, in a third separate area centred at approximately NY62231691 on the village's west side, is the demesne land of Meaburn Hall. A derelict lane flanks the southern edge of this land while building foundations are visible within an enclosure located in the south east corner of the demesne. On the hillslope flanking the modern road are building platforms associated with crofts or small enclosures. Behind these are traces of a back lane and substantial traces of a former arable field system. The field system contains rectangular enclosures and remains of ridge and furrow spreading westwards across Howe Beck to an area of woodland and northwards to a lane leading to Howbeck Bridge. On the east side of the village green, centred at approximately NY62571669 in the field immediately south of Brackenslack Lane, there are further well- preserved earthwork remain of tofts and crofts with a length of back lane to the rear. Also on the east side of the green are the earthworks and buried remains of a former mill race. This feature still carries water for part of its length and runs northwards from a weir for approximately 100m before a short diversion takes the water back to the river. From here the mill race survives first as an earthwork for about 100m, then as a buried feature for about another 150m, before becoming evident again as a short length of earthwork immediately adjacent to the mill which has latterly converted into a dwelling house. Earthworks to the west and north of the old mill and south of Brackenslack Lane indicate the presence of below ground building remains associated with the mill, the mill's tail race, and a second water channel. In the field immediately north of Brackenslack Lane are further earthwork remains of the tail race and the second water channel. All modern walls, fenceposts, gateposts, telegraph poles and the surface of a length of tarmac verge are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Roberts, B K, 'Trans Cumb and West Antiq and Arch Soc. New Ser.' in A Field Survey of Maulds Meaburn, Westmorland, , Vol. XCVI, (1996), 45-50

National Grid Reference: NY 62218 16909, NY 62375 16553, NY 62403 16296, NY 62489 16792, NY 62546 16559, NY 62579 16703

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 15-Dec-2017 at 10:26:17.

End of official listing