New Rake lead mines 600m south east of Rowter Farm


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:


Ordnance survey map of New Rake lead mines 600m south east of Rowter Farm
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

High Peak (District Authority)
National Park:
National Grid Reference:
SK 13764 82034

Reasons for Designation

Approximately 10,000 lead industry sites are estimated to survive in England, spanning nearly three millennia of mining history from the later Bronze Age (c.1000 BC) until the present day, though before the Roman period it is likely to have been on a small scale. Two hundred and fifty one lead industry sites, representing approximately 2.5% of the estimated national archaeological resource for the industry, have been identified as being of national importance. This selection of nationally important monuments, compiled and assessed through a comprehensive survey of the lead industry, is designed to represent the industry's chronological depth, technological breadth and regional diversity. Lead rakes are linear mining features along the outcrop of a lead vein resulting from the extraction of relatively shallow ore. They can be broadly divided between: rakes consisting of continuous rock-cut clefts; rakes consisting of lines of interconnecting or closely-spaced shafts with associated spoil tips and other features; and rakes whose surface features were predominantly produced by reprocessing of earlier waste tips (normally in the 19th century). In addition, some sites contain associated features such as coes (miners' huts), gin circles (the circular track used by a horse operating simple winding or pumping machinery), and small-scale ore-dressing areas and structures, often marked by tips of dressing waste. The majority of rake workings are believed to be of 16th-18th century date, but earlier examples are likely to exist, and mining by rock-cut cleft has again become common in the 20th century. Rakes are the main field monuments produced by the earlier and technologically simpler phases of lead mining. They are very common in Derbyshire, where they illustrate the character of mining dominated by regionally distinctive Mining Laws, and moderately common in the Pennine and Mendip orefields; they are rare in other lead mining areas. A sample of the better preserved examples from each region, illustrating the typological range, will merit protection.

The mining remains on New Rake are particularly well preserved and include a diverse range of components relating to the mining of this vein. Rake workings are now rare and this example is one of the best preserved in the Peak District. The standing, earthwork, buried and rock cut remains provide evidence for both the historical and technological development of what was once a far more extensive, multi-period mining landscape. The wide range of mining and processing features combined with the historical documentation will enable the development of the mine working and its chronological range to be reconstructed. The long rake, shafts, hillocks and other extraction features provide evidence for successive methods of extraction whilst other processing areas will contain deposits showing the effectiveness of these techniques. The mining remains also provide an insight into the Derbyshire Barmote Court system of mining and the constraints this imposed on the miners of the area.


The monument includes the earthwork, buried, standing and rock cut remains of New Rake, a post-medieval lead mining complex which includes the site of Hurdlow Stile Mine. The term rake is given to extraction and ore processing features which follow the line of a lead bearing vein. This was a typical form of lead mining in the Peak District. New Rake is aligned roughly east to west on high limestone moorland south east of Rowter Farm. Geologically, the lead bearing vein cuts across the Bee Low Limestones but New Rake terminates at its eastern end, at an outcrop of Cave Dale Lava. Workings on New Rake, formerly known as Hurdlow and New Rakes, have been documented in Ore Accounts and other documents from at least 1711. In 1725 it is recorded that one of the mine owners at New Rake, Thomas Pendleton, was bought before the courts for non-payment of 19 shillings and four pence for blacksmith work. The mines would have been worked under the jurisdiction of the Barmote Courts, the legal administrative unit governing Derbyshire lead mining. The Derbyshire system of mining was largely based on local mining customs and consisted of individual groups of miners or small mining companies working relatively short lengths of the vein. The monument is linear in plan and survives as a series of earthwork, buried, standing and rock cut remains which include lengths of hillocks (mounds of waste rock which either contain insufficient quantities of ore to warrant extraction or waste from ore crushing activity) interspersed with the remains of mining shafts and open cuts (veins worked open to daylight), ore storage bins, water leats, water storage ponds and an engine shaft. Centred at national grid reference SK13808200 is a concentrated area of activity which marks the site of Hurdlow Stile Mine. This area is completely enclosed by a belland yard wall (a wall built around a processing area in order to prevent cattle straying and eating grass contaminated by lead) and includes a number of capped shafts, including three climbing shafts, as well as water storage ponds, an ore storage bin and open cuts. The water storage ponds probably originated as natural swallow holes or boggy areas. A second concentrated area of activity is centred at national grid reference SK13558200. Here two mining shafts lie to the east of a third lidded shaft known as James Halls' engine shaft. James Halls' Engine is documented from at least 1748 when the Barmasters books (records kept by the executive officer of the Barmote Court) record that George Hadfield had not paid his share of the costs for the running or upkeep of the engine. Lines of hillocks and large open cuts characterise the remainder of the monument both east, west and between the concentrated areas of activity. These remains are largely untouched and clearly illustrate the extraction and processing techniques employed along the rake. Towards the western end of the monument and adjacent to the southern boundary is a large circular water storage pond which is surrounded by a purpose built dry stone wall. The pond probably took advantage of a natural hollow, but a water drainage channel links the pond to the lead mining remains which lie slightly further to the north. Between the pond and the ore extraction remains a section of the water channel has been infilled to provide a crossing point which is still used as a farm track today. New Rake is intersected at depth by the Speedwell Level which was first worked in 1771. Here, a series of natural stream caverns were intersected by mining levels and lead ore was obtained from several veins accessible only via the natural caverns. One of the climbing shafts at Hurdlow Stile Mine has been reopened in recent times for exploration and educational purposes and was found to connect, at a depth of approximately 152.4m, with Speedwell Caverns and Mine. All modern fencing and stiles are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
Legacy System:


Books and journals
Ford, D, Rieuwerts, JH (eds), Lead Mining in the Peak District, (1983), 39-42
Plan held in Peak Park Office, Heathcote, C, New Rake Near Castleton Derbyshire, (1996)
Plan held in Peak Park Office, Heathcote, C, New Rake Near Castleton Derbyshire, (1996)
Report held in Peak Park Office, Bevan, B and Sidebottom, P, Rowter Farm, Castleton and Woodside Farm Archaeological Survey, (1995)
Report held in Peak Park Office, Bevan, B and Sidebottom, P, Rowter Farm, Castleton and Woodside Farm Archaeological Survey, (1995)
Report held in Peak Park Office, Rieuwerts, JH, Foreside Rake, New Rake and associated small veins in Castleton,
Report held in Peak Park Office, Rieuwerts, JH, Foreside Rake, New Rake and associated small veins in Castleton,


This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing

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