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Pair of bowl barrows and remains of a later post mill on Willingdon Hill, 610m north west of Further Plantation

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Pair of bowl barrows and remains of a later post mill on Willingdon Hill, 610m north west of Further Plantation

List entry Number: 1019250

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: East Sussex

District: Eastbourne

District Type: District Authority

Parish:

National Park: SOUTH DOWNS

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 19-Jun-1967

Date of most recent amendment: 06-Oct-2000

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 20136

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally (many more have already been destroyed), occurring across most of lowland Britain. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape and their considerable variation of form and longevity as a monument type provide important information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

Post mills were in use from the 12th century onwards and consisted of a central vertical post about which the wooden superstructure of the mill rotated. The central post was mounted on cross timbers which were stabilised by being set into a mound. This mound might be newly built, but earlier mounds were also frequently reused. No medieval examples of the wooden superstructures survive today but the mounds, typically between 15m and 25m in diameter, survive as field monuments. The pair of bowl barrows and remains of a later post mill on Willingdon Hill survive comparatively well and will contain archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed. The evidence for later, industrial use of this prominent and exposed location as the site for a windmill, demonstrates the importance of the hilltop to the local communities, to fulfill a variety of needs over a considerable period of time.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a pair of bowl barrows aligned ENE-WSW, and the remains of a later, post-medieval post mill, situated on the summit of a chalk hill on the eastern edge of the South Downs. This location enjoys extensive views across Eastbourne and the coastline beyond. The north easterly barrow has a low circular mound up to 15m in diameter and 0.4m high. Surrounding the mound is a ditch from which material used to construct the barrow was excavated. This has become infilled over the years but survives as a buried feature around 2m wide. Around 3m to the south west is the larger barrow of the pair which has a circular mound measuring up to 25m in diameter and 1.2m high. The flat topped mound has a large, and irregular, central hollow, indicating past, partial excavation or reuse. The mound is surrounded by an infilled ditch which survives as a buried feature around 3m wide. The 8m wide earthwork which ascends the eastern side of the mound, is considered to represent the remains of a trackway associated with reuse of the barrow as a windmill mound. The trackway, which is flanked by two low, parallel banks, terminates at the footpath around 21m to the east. Historical records and cartographic evidence suggest that the hilltop was used as the site of a post mill in the 16th to 19th centuries, and that the last mill on Willingdon Hill was finally destroyed by a storm in 1817.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Grinsell, L V, 'Sussex Archaeological Collections' in Sussex Barrows, , Vol. 75, (1934), 273
Toms, H S, 'Mill Fields Valley Entrenchments and Covered Way' in Eastbourne Natural History and Archaeology Society, , Vol. Vol 7, (1917), 53
Other
Budgen, W, Sussex Notes and Queries, 1928,
Title: An Eye-Draught of the Ratton Estate Source Date: 1775 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Land belonging to the Earl of Northampton Source Date: 1760 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Map of Sussex - Ordnance Survey Old Series Source Date: 1813 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Map of Sussex Source Date: 1595 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Map of Sussex Source Date: 1724 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: TQ 57713 00963

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1019250 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 21-Nov-2017 at 07:35:23.

End of official listing