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Middle Rigg round barrows and segmented embanked pit alignment

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Middle Rigg round barrows and segmented embanked pit alignment

List entry Number: 1020351

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: North Yorkshire

District: Scarborough

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Glaisdale

National Park: NORTH YORK MOORS

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 05-Jan-1971

Date of most recent amendment: 04-Feb-1999

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 32615

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally (many more have already been destroyed), occurring across most of lowland Britain. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape and their considerable variation of form and longevity as a monument type provide important information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

Excavation of other round barrows in the region has shown that they demonstrate a very wide range of burial rites from simple scatters of cremated material to coffin inhumations and cremations contained in urns, typically dating to the Bronze Age. A common factor is that barrows were normally used for more than one burial and that the primary burial was frequently located on or below the original ground surface, often with secondary burials within the body of the mound. Pit alignments have been identified in many locations across the country, normally as crop mark sites. They frequently extend for great distances and are considered to have acted as territorial markers or boundaries. However the pit alignment on Middle Rigg is of an unusual form, both in being embanked and arranged in segments. Only three other similar sites are known, all within the River Esk basin, with one just to the east of Bella Dale Slack on Black Dike Moor. The pit alignments are also important because they survive as extant earthworks, are of a rare form, and are associated with an important group of round barrows.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the buried and earthwork remains of four round barrows and a pit alignment on Middle Rigg, Easington High Moor. The pit alignment was first noted by Young in 1817 who interpreted the remains as an ancient British pit village. Canon Atkinson investigated one of the pits in 1848 and found it to have a stone floor 1.2m-1.5m below the level of the surrounding ground surface. In 1864 Atkinson returned to part excavate one of the four round barrows. Elgee reinterpreted the pit alignments as an unfinished cross dyke in 1930 and in 1993 the area was surveyed by the Royal Commission on the Historic Monuments of England who identified it as the best surviving example of a particular form of pit alignment, a segmented embanked pit alignment. Three of the four round barrows form a roughly north west to south east line on the part of Middle Rigg known as Three Howes Rigg. All three barrows show signs of antiquarian excavation, but each has a significant proportion of the original volume of the mound surviving undisturbed. The north western barrow is just over 20m in diameter and stands 1.5m high. The middle barrow is centred 45m to the ESE and is 17m in diameter and 2m high. The third barrow is centred a further 50m to the south east, is also about 17m in diameter and stands to 1.2m in height. The middle barrow has a north-south trench cut through its centre. This is thought to have been dug in 1864 by Atkinson, who found two cremation burials. The first was about 6m from the centre of the mound and was associated with a small cup, fragments of other pieces of pottery including those from a large Bronze Age urn and four worked flints, one being an arrow head. Within 0.5m of the mound's centre there was a second small cup with more cremated bone, worked flint and a 32mm long lump of haematite. The pit alignment on Middle Rigg runs approximately parallel to the line of three barrows, about 120m to the north east. It is in two main sections, slightly offset from each other, with the 23m gap between the two sections lying opposite the central barrow. Each section of the pit alignment is further subdivided into segments, with each segment typically having between two and four pairs of pits flanked to the NNE and SSW by a pair of banks. Each segment is divided from the next by a slight change in direction, or a small break in the flanking banks. The two lines of paired pits are typically centred 10m apart and are up to 3m in diameter with the banks 12m to 18m apart and up to 1m high. The western section of the pit alignment is 138m long and includes 34 pits arranged in four shorter segments. The eastern section is 115m long and has 30 pits divided between five segments. The fourth round barrow is centered 60m to the south east of the south eastern end of the pit alignment, with the line of the pit alignment forming a tangent with the northern side of the barrow. This barrow is more complex in earthwork form than the other three in the group. It is a 13m diameter squat mound placed centrally on a circular platform which has an outer lip 0.1m to 0.2m high. The base of the platform is 22m in diameter, with the lip 0.5m above the surrounding ground surface. The whole barrow is sited on slightly sloping ground so that it is 1m high when measured on the north western side and 1.6m high on the south eastern side. The four round barrows associated with the pit alignment on Middle Rigg have no discernible ditches around them, but excavation of other barrows has shown that even where no encircling depression is discernible on the modern ground surface, ditches immediately around the outside of barrows frequently survive as infilled features, containing additional archaeological deposits.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Smith, M J B, Excavated Bronze Age Burial Mounds of Durham and N' land., (1994), 74
Lofthouse, C A, 'Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society' in Segmented Embanked Pit Alignments in the North York Moors, , Vol. 159, (1993), 383-392
Other
Ordnance Survey Record Card, Ordnance Survey, NZ 71 SW 11, (1973)

National Grid Reference: NZ 73997 10691

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing