This browser is not fully supported by Historic England. Please update your browser to the latest version so that you get the best from our website.

Daw's Castle

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Daw's Castle

List entry Number: 1020882

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Somerset

District: West Somerset

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Watchet

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 17-Jan-1969

Date of most recent amendment: 12-Mar-2003

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 33712

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Anglo-Saxon centres, usually known as burhs, are defended urban areas that are characterised by a planned, ordered layout, sometimes including a regular grid of streets. They date mainly from the late ninth century AD, as King Alfred's response to the threat of Danish invasion. There are some earlier, eighth century examples in the kingdom of Mercia. They include large towns covering around 58ha, and smaller forts ranging in size from 1ha-9.5ha. Their defences are usually either restored Roman town walls or newly built earthen ramparts. Documentary evidence suggests that mints and markets were established in most of the larger centres. Many of the larger fortified centres now lie beneath modern cities or towns, but strong traces of their layout usually survive in the modern street plan. Most original buildings, including churches, dwellings and outbuildings, were simple timber structures, traces of which may survive in the form of fragile below ground features such as post holes, sill-beam slots and pits. Other contemporary features include water supply and drainage systems, burgage plot boundaries, middens and street furniture. A few of the smaller burghal forts were short-lived and have remained largely undisturbed by subsequent development since their abandonment. Fortified centres are a rare monument type with around 90 identified examples across southern, eastern and central England. The greatest concentration lies within the late Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, and they cluster in areas with favoured royal residences such as Somerset and Wiltshire. They are a comparatively well documented monument class, with 35 fortified centres of Wessex listed in the Burghal Hidage, a document which dates to the early tenth century AD. They are one of the earliest groups of planned medieval towns in western Europe. All examples with significant remains are considered to be of national importance.

Despite part of the of the Saxon fortified site known as Daw's Castle having been lost through coastal erosion, the remainder of the circuit, and the major part of the fort's interior, survive comparatively well and are known from limited excavations to contain archaeological remains and environmental evidence which relates to the construction of the site, the lives of its inhabitants, and the landscape in which they lived. The high status of the site is demonstrated by its possession of a mint, one of only a few recorded in Somerset, which produced coins from the time of Athelred II (978-1016) until the site was abandoned in favour of the present town of Watchet. This importance is further enhanced by the contemporary documentary sources which refer to the site. They include the early 10th century Burghal Hidage list, an administrative document which recorded the network of fortified burhs constructed across southern England against the threat of Viking attacks. Additionally, the burh is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and an entry for the year 914 records failed attacks by Scandinavian raiders who had sailed up the Severn Estuary.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the remains of a fortified site of Saxon date known as Daw's Castle located approximately 1km to the west of the medieval port of Watchet. The site is prominently located on the cliff edge about 80m above Warren Bay in the Severn Estuary and has extensive inland views towards the Brendon Hills and Exmoor to the south and west and the Quantock Hills to the east. The fortification survives as a curvilinear earthen bank which represents the line of the Saxon defences and is broadly aligned from east to west enclosing an area of approximately 2ha. The north side of the site is now defined by the cliff edge as part of the defensive earthworks have been lost to coastal erosion and landslips. The surviving circuit of the defence is represented by a bank approximately 180m in length which has been shown by partial excavations to have been constructed in two phases. The first phase of construction is believed to date from the reign of King Alfred, between 871 and 899. A mortared stone wall 0.6m high and 0.85m wide at its base was revealed fronting a bank approximately 7m wide. The later phase of construction is represented by a wall of more substantial proportions which was shown by excavation to have replaced the original wall, with dimensions 1.42m wide and at least 3.5m high. A bank 7.9m wide was revealed behind the wall. Fronting the wall was a berm 10.7m wide and a narrow ditch 1.52m wide. This later phase is believed to have been constructed during the 10th century in response to the increased threat of Viking raids which are recorded as having taken place within the Severn Estuary. The results of the partial excavation would seem to lend support to the probability that the earthwork remains at Daw's Castle represent the site of the original Saxon burh of Watchet. A network of fortifications was constructed across southern England at the instigation of King Alfred in order to defend against the threat of Viking raids. These fortresses, known as burhs, are described in documents known as the Burghal Hidage, compiled around 914, which lists the burhs together with the number of men required to defend them. Watchet is assessed at 513 hides which equates with an approximate length of 645m for the whole perimeter of the defensive bank. Documentary sources record a mint at Watchet which was producing coins from around 980 predominantly of Aethelred II, and this is assumed to have been located within the burh. It is suggested that because the Watchet mint did not strike any coins between 1056-80, a break unique among Wessex mints, and also because no reference to a fort at Watchet is recorded in the Domesday survey, the site had been abandoned after the Conquest and the mint re-established within the present town. A number of graves were revealed during the 19th century construction of three lime kilns on the north east side of the site. These graves have been dated to around the fifth century AD which suggests a possible earlier phase of occupation of the site. The lime kilns are Listed Grade II. The lime kiln yard and its associated lime kiln draws and surface structures which lie to the north east of the scheduling are specifically not included in the scheduling. Daw's Castle is in the care of the Secretary of State. All English Heritage fixed signposts and all fencing and gateposts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
McAvoy, F, 'Proceedings Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society' in Excavations at Daw's Castle, Watchet, , Vol. 130, (1982), 47-60
Pearce, S, 'Proceedings Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society' in The Kingdom of Dumnonia, , Vol. 130, (1978), 66,184

National Grid Reference: ST 06141 43181

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1020882 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 15-Dec-2017 at 04:26:15.

End of official listing