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Listed Building
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Ordnance survey map of 1-5, HIGH STREET
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Statutory Address:

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Braintree (District Authority)
National Grid Reference:
TL 85905 18429


KELVEDON HIGH STREET TL 8418-8518 (north-west side)

9/159 Nos. 1-5 (odd) (also 21.12.67 known as Knights Templars Terrace) (formerly listed as nos. 1, 2 and 3 Knights Templar Terrace)

GV I Provincial mansion of the Abbot of Westminster, now 3 houses. Early C16, altered in C18 and late C19. Timber framed, with 2 facades of yellow brick in Flemish bond with stone dressings, the remainder plastered with some exposed framing, roofed with handmade red plain tiles. Range of 5 large bays facing SE, with 3 rear wings of 2 bays, forming an E-plan. Original stacks in left wing, in rear of main range between left and middle wings, and at right end of main range. Later stacks to right of middle wing and to right of right wing. Catslide extension to rear of main range between left and middle wings, and single-storey extension to right of left wing. Stair tower between middle and right wings, and 2 smaller extensions to rear of it. Single-storey lean-to extension to rear of right wing, subject to planning application at time of survey, November 1986. 2 storeys, cellars and attics. Ground floor, 3 late C19 tripartite sashes of 2-2-2 lights and one late C19 sash of 2 lights. First floor, 6 late C19 sashes of 4 lights. 3 late C19 4-panel doors with plain overlights in stilted segmental arches, with projecting false keystones. Stone plaque near left end inscribed 'Knights Templars Terrace'. Stone plaque over door of no. 5 inscribed '1873 J.C. & A.C.'. 3 giant pilasters. Dogtooth bands at first-floor level and above first-floor windows, plain parapet with stone coping. The Church Street elevatiqn at the left end meets the main elevation at an obtuse angle, and has a similar facade with one dogtooth band and no parapet. Ground floor, one similar tripartite sash and one late C19 splayed bay of sashes of 2-4-2 lights; first floor, 2 late C19 sashes of 2 lights. Roof hipped at front. On each side of the right rear wing some framing is exposed; close studding, curved braces trenched to the outside; at the end a blocked archway 1.68 metres wide with 4-centred head, and a smaller blocked doorway with 4-centred head. The left side of the right wing and the right side of the middle wing are jettied, the latter underbuilt. No. 5 (a the right end) comprises a large entrance-hall one bay wide with rooms to each side, the stair tower, and the right rear wing. The remainder is irregularly divided between nos. 1 and 3. Ground storey approx. 3 metres high, varying according to the site gradient, which declines from left to right; upper storey 2.64 metres high, originally open to the roof, now with C17 inserted ceilings and mainly occupied attics. Full-length underbuilt jetty at front. In the main range and the middle rear wing all the beams and joists are richly moulded, the joints scribed to the profile of the mouldings. Original oak floorboards are set parallel to the joists, rebated into them, and are mostly exposed below. In the other rear bays the beams are chamfered, and the joists are plain and of horizontal section, mainly plastered to the soffits. Jowled posts. Cambered tiebeams, butt-purlin roofs with arched collars and arched wind-bracing, originally gabled to the front, altered to hips. In the front bays the tiebeams, principals, purlins, collars and braces are hollow-chamfered; in the rear bays they are plain-chamfered at all arrises. Numerous doorways with 4-centred doorheads, some blocked; a small one at the right end behind the stack may have been to a garderobe or private stair. The left stack has a chevron-headed niche of moulded brick above the wood-burning hearth facing forwards; the rear hearth has a replaced mantel beam. The middle stack has at the front a moulded cambered mantel beam, one moulded jamb, and above, a repaired niche with 2 trefoiled heads; at the rear a mitred mantel beam with 3 original trefoiled niches above of moulded brick; and at first floor front, a mitred mantel beam with niche above with 4-centred head. The right stack has a chamfered mantel beam with roll stops, and above, 2 truncated diagonal shafts and original pointing (see no. 7, High Street, item 9/160). Original groundsills. In the left bays the joists and beams are jointed to match the obtuse angle of the 2 elevations, resulting in irregular plan forms. The first-floor rooms of no. 3 retain traces of wall-painting of c.1600 and in the rear wing an unglazed window with 4 hollow-moulded mullions, blocked externally. 2 first-floor rooms of no. 5 are lined with moulded pine panelling of c.1600, with similar contemporary doors of oak; 2 of these walls retain extensive remains of painting of c.1600. Original cellar of bricks of high quality 0.24 x 0.12 x 0.05 metre, with piers supporting hearth, and original steps to ground floor, original doorway now blocked. This property was part of the manor of Church Hall, held by the Abbot of Westminster from before the Conquest until 1539, then by the Bishop of Westminster, and from 1550 by the Bishop of London. The position, size and high quality of timber and workmanship indicate that it was built for the Abbot of Westminster as a provincial mansion, continuing in similar use after the Dissolution. The manor was leased from 1553, and by 1604 the building had become a major inn called 'The White Lyon', later 'The Red Lion'. By 1791 this house and no. 7 (item 9/160) had been converted to 4 tenements, as they remain today. In a major restoration of c.1878 panelling was found bearing carvings of pomegranates, a heads, strawberry leaves and the crest of Henry VIII, now missing, and a photograph was taken of the Church Street elevation stripped to the timber framing. The brick facades and present windows and doors date from that operation (P. Morant, The History and Antiquities of the County of Essex, 1768, II, 150; A. Hamilton, 'A description of an old inn at Kelvedon', Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, I (n.s.), 1878, 153-8; B.L. Kentish, Kelvedon and its Antiquities, 1974, 39-41 and plates 10-11). RCHM 39.

Listing NGR: TL8590518429


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

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Books and journals
Kentish, BL , Kelvedon and its Antiquities, (1974), 39-41
Morant, P, The History and Antiquities of the County of Essex, (1768), 150
'Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society' in Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, , Vol. 1, (1878), 153-8


This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

End of official listing

Images of England

Images of England was a photographic record of every listed building in England, created as a snap shot of listed buildings at the turn of the millennium. These photographs of the exterior of listed buildings were taken by volunteers between 1999 and 2008. The project was supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Date: 28 Mar 2002
Reference: IOE01/06548/19
Rights: Copyright IoE Mr Frank Swift. Source Historic England Archive
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