Heritage Category:
Listed Building
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Date first listed:
Date of most recent amendment:
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Statutory Address:

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Brentwood (District Authority)
Non Civil Parish
National Grid Reference:
TQ 58881 92259



TQ59SE WARLEY HILL, Warley 723-1/8/151 (West side) 20/02/76 Warley Hospital, main block, administrative buildings with attached ward wings (Formerly Listed as: WARLEY HILL, Warley Warley Hospital (Central block and wings to the north and south only))


Hospital for the mentally ill. Foundation stone dated 1851, continuous building phases over 45 years. Architect HE Kendall and RR Pope. Red brick with stone dressings, roofs of red machine-made tile. Tudor style. Burnt brick diaper decoration, labels with head and leaf stops over doors and mullioned and transomed windows. Many windows have depressed 4-centred arched heads and ward windows are commonly fitted with metal casements of a 5 and 3 pane system. Plan (1) Central deep block facing E (2) attached symmetrical ward wings creating open fronted courts facing E, each side to N and S. Second parallel attached ward range to W creating narrow inner court with symmetrical wings off at N to (3) N and (4) W, at S to (3) S and (4) W. Also (5) axial wing to W as first floor chapel with hall below. EXTERIOR: (1) E front, principal facade, symmetrical 2 storeyed, 9 bays, frontage broken forward twice, 1:2:3:2:1 system, with diagonal corner buttresses and embattled parapet. Centre 3 bays made asymmetrical with tower to S and 2 facade gables to N. Ground floor divided into 4 bays, 2 outer have two-centred arched window, inner 2 bays have doorways with two-centred heads. Doorways divided by a central buttress, rising to a corbelled oriel window of 4 lights in the centre bay above. Tower of 5 stages with heavy clasping buttress at SE corner with foundation stone. Large first floor window of 4-lights. Gabled niche above with cusped head, above, 2 rectangular narrow 2-light traceried windows. Clock under gable and diagonally set gabled bell-cote on parapet to SE. Outer symmetrical 3 bays, from centre outward - bays 3 and 7, ground floor 3-light window, first floor, 2-light window, bays 2 and 8, canted ground floor bay windows of 4 lights through 2 storeys, embattled parapet, facade gable with blind gable window. Bays 1 and 8, ground floor bay window of 4 lights, embattled parapet, first floor 3-light window, facade gable with blind window. N and E end elevations gabled at E with ground floor 3-light and first floor 2-light window, to W, 2 staggered 2-light windows with doorway (at S end partly obscured by C20 addition) to W, bay windows through 2 storeys, 3 and 2-light windows. Rear, W elevation of N and S ends, (partly obscured by later additions), 3 and 4-light windows, first floor single 2-light and one single light window and blind gable window. (2) E facing ward courts, inner elevations. 2 storeys with symmetrical cross-wing gabled bays breaking forward having ground and first floor 3-light windows, upper windows have stepped panelled decoration to their heads. Ground and first floor windows of the ranges are one and 2-lights alternating, with 3-light at the E ends. N court considerably obscured by later additions and has additionally, a projecting E facing nurses' block of 1900, 3 storeyed, 4 bays with 2 exterior facade stacks and facade gables, 1:2:1 bays. 2-light windows, first and second floor with transoms, side fenestration, irregular and with corridors connecting the block to the wards. E front elevation partly obscured by C20 additions, 2 gables, major and minor. Ground floor 3-light window, first floor one 3-light and one 2-light window below minor gable. Outer faces of E court wings, N and S, gabled cross-wing bay breaks forward at E end with 4-light ground floor and 3-light first floor windows. To W end, bay windows of 5 cants to both storeys, gabled cross-wing behind. 3-light, 2-light and 1-light windows. Centre of block, 3 cant bay window of 2-lights, (S end ground floor obscured by C20 addition). Windows of ward range of 3-lights. E end, 2-light windows, blind above transom, also boarded door, 2-centre arched doorheads. To W, tower with parapet and cornice, ground floor door with heavy embattled stone hood, first floor, tall 2-light window, 2 transoms, above, blind slit window. Due to falling ground, N end has additional lower floor to tower with door and 2 windows. E end of range has similar lower floor. (3) N and S outer wings, E face, continuous range, decoration characterised by lack of window transoms, continuous hood mouldings to ground-floor windows and diamond shaped label stops. Metal casement windows of 2x5 panes consistently used. S range, 2 storey, N range 3 storey with lower 2 storeys identical, projecting cross-wing, gabled bays at each end, inner one adjacent to tower has 3 single-light ground floor windows, first floor, 3-light windows with blind stepped head decoration as on front (E) courts. Outer cross-wing has 4-light ground floor window, first floor similar window but with blind stepped head decoration. Windows of range alternate, of 1 and 2-light type. S and N end elevation similar to E ends of front E courts but with 3 storeys due to falling ground. Elevations partly obscured by C20 addition. N and S outer wings, W faces, S 2 storeyed, N 3 storey gabled cross-wings break forward at each end with 3 and 4 light windows. Central 3-cant bay windows through all floors with 2-light windows. Stacks (now reduced and capped) between central bay windows and end cross-wings and another on side of inner cross-wing range has 2-light window. Doorway at inner angle with embattled stone hood. Tower to inner angles with wing to W with doorway, half octagon stair projection above with slit vent windows. Windows on exposed faces, upper parapet and cornice. W projection, 2 storeyed, 2 bayed range and single storeyed 4-bayed range with second bay from E projecting gabled cross-wing. (N, W projection only the 2 storeyed bay with one bay as gabled cross-wing - 4-light windows, upper one with blind stepped head decoration, stack to range on inner face.) (4) W elevation, N and S courts, each side of axial chapel, ground floor partly obscured by additions. Gabled projecting cross-wing adjacent to chapel window - ground floor 4-lights, first floor 3-lights. Central gabled bay to range with 3-cant bay windows alternating 2 and 3-light windows along whole range. Outer cross-wing gabled bay, 4-light windows, upper with blind stepped head decoration. (5) First floor chapel (now redundant ward), stone faced, transepts and aisles, S with lean-to roof, N, 2-storeyed with flat roof and parapet, also stair tower. Ground floor obscured by additions. Principal windows 2 centred heads, blind tympanum, metal casements with glazing bars, 8x8 panes. W end, 12x8 panes. Clerestory on S side, 2-centred traceried blind windows. INTERIOR: administrative area. Entrance hall, doorways with segment heads and labels with head stops, also door with 4 centred arch in square moulded frame with fleurons in a deep cavetto and leaf decorated spandrels. Fireplace - square embattled surround, cavetto moulded and leaf decoration. 2 angels above holding arms of Essex in gabled niche, fire opening - 4-centred arch with leaf decoration in spandrels and outer dougle ogee moulding. Ceiling with moulded joists on corbels with leaf, flower and angle decoration. Stair to committee room, in stair-well, of perpendicular style, newel posts with double ogee moulded chamfers, shaped stops, shaped newel finial, grid of blind tracery over side boarding with leaf decorated spandrels, balusters of square section, twisted wrought-iron. Rear stair of similar style but simpler. Chapel interior, leaf and angel decorated corbels, labels with head stops. HISTORICAL NOTE: the hospital was built as a Pauper Lunatic Asylum as a consequence of the 1845 Lunatic Asylum Act requiring all counties to make this provision. In 1849, 86 acres of the Brentwood Hall Estate was bought. The site was difficult to develop due to the land gradients and quicksands in the sub-soil. The original design for 300 patients was a totally symmetrical plan of both buildings and gardens and this is clearly seen in the main block, even though over crowding required an accommodation of 450 and even this was a gross underestimate requiring additional building in 1863, 1870, 1888, 1897 and 1936. The style of the original building was described as `medieval, of the Tudor period ----- being substantial, cheerful, English in character ----- and not too expensive'. Information compiled by Mr T Neary, General Manager. Warley Hospital, Tower House (qv) and The Lodge (qv) form a group.

Listing NGR: TQ5888192259


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This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.

End of official listing

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Date: 01 Sep 2001
Reference: IOE01/05346/07
Rights: Copyright IoE Mr Graham Bridgeman-Clarke. Source Historic England Archive
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