Settlement 350yds (320m) E of Greenhill


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1007118

Date first listed: 14-Mar-1972


Ordnance survey map of Settlement 350yds (320m) E of Greenhill
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Allerdale (District Authority)

Parish: Westward

National Grid Reference: NY 25416 45464


Settlement enclosure and trackway, 320m ENE of Greenhill Farm.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The settlement enclosure 320m ENE of Greenhill Farm is preserved as a cropmark and will contain archaeological deposits relating to their construction, use and abandonment. The significance of the monument is increased by its proximity to the broadly contemporary Roman fort and civilian settlement located 1km to the north east. Taken together the remains provide insight into the Roman occupation of Britain and particularly the relationship between Roman military occupation and native settlement.


See Details.


This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 29 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.

The monument includes the remains of three settlement enclosures of Roman date, situated on an east-west running ridge. The enclosures, which are preserved as cropmarks, are rectilinear in plan and are associated with a short section of a trackway, which is also preserved as a cropmark.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: CU 395

Legacy System: RSM - OCN


PastScape Monument No:- 9946

End of official listing