Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1007316
Date first listed: 14-Jan-1938
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: County of Herefordshire (Unitary Authority)
National Grid Reference: SO 54656 60235
Large univallate hillfort known as Bach Camp 240m north west of The Walls.
Reasons for Designation
Large univallate hillforts are defined as fortified enclosures of varying shape, ranging in size between 1ha and 10ha, located on hilltops and surrounded by a single boundary comprising earthworks of massive proportions. They date to the Iron Age period, most having been constructed and used between the fourth century BC and the first century AD, although evidence for earlier use is present at most sites. The size of the earthworks reflects the ability of certain social groups to mobilise the labour necessary for works on such a monumental scale, and their function may have had as much to do with display as defence. Large univallate hillforts are also seen as centres of redistribution, both for subsistence products and items produced by craftsmen. The ramparts are of massive proportions except in locations where steepness of slope precludes easy access. They can vary between 6m and 20m wide and may survive to a height of 6m. The ditches can measure between 6m and 13m wide and between 3m and 5m deep. Access to the interior is generally provided by one or two entrances which often take the form of long passages formed by inturned ramparts and originally closed by a gate located towards the inner end of the passageway. The entrance may be flanked by guardrooms and/or accompanied by outworks. Internal features included timber or stone round houses; large storage pits and hearths; scattered postholes, stakeholes and gullies; and square or rectangular buildings supported by four to six posts, often represented by postholes, and interpreted as raised granaries. Large univallate hillforts are rare with between 50 and 100 examples recorded nationally. Most are located within southern England where they occur on the chalkland of Wessex, Sussex and Kent. The western edge of the distribution is marked by scattered examples in north Somerset and east Devon, while further examples occur in central and western England and outliers further north. Within this distribution considerable regional variation is apparent, both in their size, rampart structure and the presence or absence of individual components. In view of the rarity of large univallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the organisation and regional structure of Iron Age society, all examples with surviving archaeological remains are believed to be of importance.
Following extensive management works the large univallate hillfort known as Bach Camp 240m north west of The Walls survives well and will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to its construction, development, longevity, social organisation, territorial and strategic significance, agricultural practices, trade, industrial activity, domestic arrangements and overall landscape context.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 26 May 2015. The record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
This monument includes a large univallate hillfort situated on the summit of a rounded hill forming the watershed between the valleys of the Whyle Brook and one of its major tributaries and overlooking their confluence. The hillfort survives as an irregular shaped enclosure covering approximately 4.1ha and defined differentially by a single rampart of up to 5.1m high with partially buried outer ditch and counterscarp bank up to 1.8m high to the north, east and south and by a berm and deep scarp to the west. Of the three entrances the southern one is inturned, the northern is a simple gap and one to the west is presumed to be more modern.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: HE 101
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape 110884, Herefordshire SMR 344
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing