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Prehistoric settlements and field system with adjacent medieval settlement, field systems, boundaries and tin streamworks on the Brown Gelly Downs

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Prehistoric settlements and field system with adjacent medieval settlement, field systems, boundaries and tin streamworks on the Brown Gelly Downs

List entry Number: 1007770

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Neot

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 17-May-1956

Date of most recent amendment: 15-Apr-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15267

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Bodmin Moor, the largest of the Cornish granite uplands, has long been recognised to have exceptional preservation of archaeological remains. The Moor has been the subject of detailed archaeological survey and is one of the best recorded upland landscapes in England. The extensive relict landscapes of prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval date provide direct evidence for human exploitation of the Moor from the earliest prehistoric period onwards. The well-preserved and often visible relationship between settlement sites, field systems, ceremonial and funerary monuments as well as later industrial remains provides significant insights into successive changes in the pattern of land use through time.

Elaborate complexes of fields and field boundaries are a major feature of the Moor landscape. Several methods of field layout are known to have been employed in south-west England during the Bronze Age (c.2000-700 BC), producing both regular and irregular patterns of field plots, with differing degrees of conformity of orientation and arrangement and containing fields of various shapes and sizes bounded by stone or rubble walls or banks, ditches or fences. These field systems often incorporate or are situated near stone hut circles, the dwelling places of prehistoric farmers on the Moor, mostly also dating from the Bronze Age. The stone-based round houses survive as low walls or banks enclosing a circular floor area; the remains of a turf or thatch roof are not preserved as visible features. The huts may occur singly or in small or large groups as settlements and may occur in the open or be enclosed by a bank of earth and stone. Prehistoric enclosures may form an integral part of hut circle settlements, or they may adjoin field systems or occur in the open. These discrete plots of land enclosed by stone walls, or banks of stone and earth, were constructed as stock pens or as protected areas for crop growing and were sometimes subdivided to accommodate animal shelters and hut circle settlements for farmers and herders. The size and form of enclosures may therefore vary considerably, depending on their particular function. Prehistoric field systems, hut circles and enclosures are important elements of the existing landscape and provide evidence on the organisation of farming practices and settlement during the prehistoric period. The relatively unintensive post-medieval land use of upland areas which has allowed the preservation of much surviving prehistoric settlement and field system evidence, has also permitted the survival of medieval remains which often abut or impinge on those earlier, prehistoric, remains. Such medieval remains may include cultivation ridging, whether enclosed or unenclosed, and various forms of field system and settlement. Regular enclosed field systems are one such field system type known to have been employed during the later medieval period (AD 1066-1550). They comprise a methodically-arranged collection of field plots in which individual holdings were systematically distributed through different parts of the field system's overall area. This was achieved by several known methods of field layout depending on whether the field system was superimposed on an earlier, sometimes unenclosed, field system or whether it was newly established on the area covered, and whether or not the field system comprised a cohesive or dispersed collection of plots. The resulting regular enclosed field systems often include collections of elongated strip-form plots, each plot representing one unit of an individual's holding. The economic strategies by which medieval communities exploited their agricultural resources also varied and had a strong influence on the nature of field system employed, though no fixed relationship existed between the economic strategy and field system type. One common strategy employed in the medieval period was the infield-outfield system. By this method, the infield, an area of arable land closest to the settlement, was intensively cultivated, regularly manured and frequently cropped, while in the outfield, a more distant arable block, land was infrequently cropped, with long fallow periods under pasture to restore the fertility of the soil. Medieval field systems sometimes survive in association with broadly contemporary settlements containing longhouses, one of the several distinctive forms of medieval farmhouse which may occur individually or grouped to form villages. Rectangular in plan, usually with boulder or rubble outer walls and with their long axis orientated downslope, the interior of longhouses was divided into two separate functional areas, an upslope domestic room and a downslope stock-byre, known in south-west England as a shippon. The division between the two, and their access, was usually provided by timber screens or sometimes rubble walling, running transversely across the longhouse, linking opposed openings in the long side-walls. Longhouses may be accompanied by ancillary buildings, separated slightly from the farmhouse itself, which may have served as fuel stores or occasionally contain ovens and corn-drying kilns. The earliest known longhouses date to the 10th to 11th centuries AD but their main period of construction was during the later 12th to 15th centuries AD. Medieval field systems and longhouse settlements also form an important element of the existing landscape, providing information on the organisation of medieval farming and settlement, its expansion onto the uplands and providing evidence for the successive changes in land use that have affected the Moor. Extraction of tin ore during the medieval period was undertaken by a variety of methods depending on the nature of the ore's occurrence, whether in the parent rock, deep beneath the ground or shallow, or in weathered deposits, either close to the site of weathering or transported to valley floors with the alluvium. Streamworks were a principal method of exploiting ore in weathered deposits. The ore deposits were exposed and separated using water brought or diverted to the desired location in channels, called leats. The manner of working the deposits progressed upwards and outwards along a valley or hillslope, allowing gravity to sort the tin ore from the waste and enabling the latter to be deposited as spoil over the areas already worked. Various methods of manipulating the water supply were employed, each producing a distinctive pattern of spoil heaps. This monument on the Brown Gelly Downs contains unusually well-preserved evidence for the sequence of prehistoric and medieval phases of land use on this hillside. The prehistoric enclosed hut circle settlement and the medieval longhouse settlement, its associated field systems and adjacent tin streamworks survive especially well, little affected by later activity. The good survival, in so closely-defined an area, of multiple phases of land use during both the prehistoric and medieval periods is rare. As a result the monument provides an unusually full illustration of the development of settlement and farming practices from the Bronze Age to the present day. The tin streamworks adjacent to the medieval field system also survive well. Research on the streamworks in this monument has formed the basis for a widely-used system for their classification. They are not only significant as the earliest historically-recorded examples on the Moor which are still locatable, but their recorded operation contemporary with the longhouse settlement's occupation gives rare evidence for the relationship between the medieval farming and tinning industries. The survival of the medieval field system adjacent to the streamwork's north-east edge defines the original extent of the land pertaining to the monument's longhouse settlement, and together with the proximity of the deserted longhouse settlement to the east, it illustrates the broader pattern of medieval settlement and agriculture in this upland environment.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is situated on the eastern slope of the Brown Gelly Downs and part of the adjacent valley to its east, on southern Bodmin Moor. It includes two adjacent prehistoric stone hut circle settlements on the lower slope of the Downs, one unenclosed and dispersed around traces of a broadly contemporary field system, the other forming a dense aggregation of hut circles enclosed within a network of small plots and enclosures. Two earlier medieval linear boundaries cross the unenclosed prehistoric settlement, the lower boundary associated with contemporary cultivation ridging and a deserted farmhouse. The northern part of the enclosed hut circle settlement was incorporated into the inner field block of a later medieval deserted longhouse settlement located to the north-east. The settlement's outer field block extends over the north-east slope of the Downs. Medieval tin-workings, called streamworks, occupy the valley floor adjacent to the north-east edge of that outer field block. On the opposite side of the valley floor, the streamworks are also adjacent to the south-west edge of a medieval regular enclosed field system forming part of the cultivated land of a second deserted medieval settlement located beyond the monument to the east. The unenclosed hut circle settlement contains at least 25 hut circles spaced 3m to 65m apart over 4.5 hectares of a gently sloping terrace on the eastern midslope of the Downs. The hut circles survive with walls of heaped rubble and boulders, up to 2m wide and 0.6m high, occasionally incorporating edge-set inner facing slabs. The walls define circular or ovoid internal areas in the range 2.5m to 6.5m in diameter, usually levelled into the hillslope. Entrance gaps, up to 0.5m wide, are visible in four hut circle walls, facing east or north-east and flanked in two cases by edge-set slabs. Several hut circle walls have larger breaks reflecting damage during later occupation of this hillside. Three hut circles have adjoining sub-circular annexes, similarly-walled, with internal diameters from 1.5m-3m. The unenclosed settlement is bounded to west and north-east by dense natural scree, called clitter, into which several of the western peripheral hut circles are built, but the terrace about which the settlement is focussed is relatively free of surface stone. This terrace contains a scatter of at least seven discontinuous rubble banks, up to 1.5m wide, 0.6m high and 55m long, considered to derive from a prehistoric field system, broadly contemporary with the unenclosed hut circle settlement and whose network of banks was disrupted during later prehistoric and medieval clearance and stone-robbing on this hillside. Immediately beyond the clitter north-east of the unenclosed settlement, the enclosed hut circle settlement occupies 3ha of the Downs' lower eastern slope, extending over 320m along the slope in a band up to 130m wide. This settlement contains at least 39 hut circles, generally more massively constructed than those in the unenclosed settlement. These hut circles survive with heaped or coursed rubble and boulder walling, up to 2m wide and 0.9m high. The walls define circular or ovoid internal areas ranging 3m to 12m in maximum diameter, levelled into the slope, with only two under 5m in internal diameter. The walls frequently incorporate inner and outer facing slabs and entrance gaps are visible in 23 of the hut circles, orientated downslope, between north and south-east. The entrances are often flanked by end-set slabs, called orthostats, and sometimes by thickened walling. At least seven hut circles have adjoining circular or ovoid annexes which, together with most of the hut circles, are integrated into a network of small, contiguous rubble-walled garden plots and enclosures. This network of walling extends throughout much of the settlement's area, broken only near the centre of the settlement where a spread of uncleared dense clitter considerably reduces the settlement's width. At least six enclosures are perceptible, usually ovoid and up to 0.1ha in area, but many of the garden plots are irregular, often smaller than the hut circles themselves. The hut circles are very closely spaced, several adjoining, most only 2-4m apart and none over 25m from its nearest neighbour. The walling both of the hut circles and the settlement's network of plots and enclosure indicates that the total pattern of walling visible in this settlement results from a sequence of accretion and alteration. The many differences between this and the unenclosed settlement on the midslope terrace are considered to indicate their respective construction during differing phases of prehistoric land use. Three more hut circles occur up to 180m NNW of the enclosed settlement, 25m-100m apart in a line roughly along the contour. These hut circles are situated in an area of medieval cultivation and enclosure that has partly robbed their walling and disrupted their relationship to the other nearby prehistoric features. During the medieval period, further phases of land use development are evident in the site. An earlier medieval feature is an almost straight linear boundary which extends NNE-SSW over 709m roughly along the contour, across the Downs' eastern midslope, crossing the centre of the unenclosed hut circle settlement. The boundary is visible as an earth-and-rubble wall, up to 1.25m wide and 0.5m high where unmodified by later refurbishment. For most of its length it is accompanied by a ditch, up to 1.75m wide and 0.3m deep, along its western, uphill, side. This boundary forms the upper limit of several areas of medieval cultivation ridging visible on this hillside, indicating a function to demarcate cultivatable land on the lower slope from pasture on the midslope. It also defines the eastern side of a pasture belt along the eastern slope of the Downs. The western side of this belt is marked by a second, almost parallel, linear boundary running 45m to 70m west, up the slope, generally following the lower edge of dense clitter on the flanks of Brown Gelly hill. The northern end of this western boundary meets a block of medieval strip fields described below. The southern ends of these boundaries flare to over 100m apart, providing a funnel-shaped entrance to facilitate driving stock between them. The pasture belt defined by these paired linear boundaries is also considered to have defined a routeway for stock through the cultivated lower slopes of the Downs to the pasture on the Higher Langdon spur to the north-east. The cultivation ridges associated with this early medieval phase survive as areas of contiguous, almost straight, parallel, low earthen banks, 1m-2.5m wide and up to 0.2m high, unenclosed except by the linear boundary forming their uphill limit. The main area of ridges extends over 1.5ha running up to the northern part of the linear boundary. A second area of ridging, visible over 0.5ha, is near the north-east edge of the unenclosed prehistoric settlement; further intermittent traces are visible to the south within the eastern part of that unenclosed settlement. A deserted medieval farmhouse within this zone of cultivation ridging is considered to belong to this early phase. Situated at the north-east edge of the prehistoric unenclosed settlement, it survives with a coursed rubble and spaced boulder wall, up to 1.5m wide and 0.7m high, defining an internal area measuring 7.5m north-south by 3.5m east-west. An entrance gap, 0.5m wide and flanked by edge-set slabs, is located in the northern half of the east wall. The northern end of the interior, beyond the entrance, narrows to a width of 2.25m. Later medieval occupation within the monument includes a deserted longhouse settlement with its abandoned inner and outer blocks of fields on the east and north-eastern lower slopes of the Brown Gelly Downs. The deserted settlement contains two longhouses situated 40m apart along the foot of the eastern slope of the Downs. Each longhouse survives with walling of coursed rubble and boulders, accompanied by later tumble, defining an elongated rectangular outer wall orientated directly downslope, WSW-ENE. The northern longhouse measures 24m by 6m externally and shows evidence for some modification before abandonment. The upslope, western, half of its plan formed the domestic quarters totalling 10m by 4m internally, with a transverse wall dividing a western room, 2m long, from the remainder. A cross-passage separating the domestic quarters from the shippon, or stock-byre, was blocked and the former shippon, measuring 5m by 3.5m internally, was incorporated into the domestic quarters. A new shippon of similar dimensions was built onto the eastern end of the original longhouse plan. This longhouse has a row of four contiguous ancillary buildings parallel to and 1.5m-2m beyond its northern wall. The row is up to 6m wide and extends over 22.5m, subdivided by transverse walls into the four structures, 3m-7m long internally. The western two structures were walled on all sides while the eastern two were open on their southern sides. The southern longhouse measures 19m by 7m externally, its plan affected by a later medieval building built into its western half after abandonment, robbing its walls of some stone. A gap near the centre of the longhouse's northern wall marks the cross-passage between the domestic quarters and shippon. This longhouse has two adjoining ancillary buildings, near-parallel to and 1m-2.5m beyond its southern wall. Their walls total 15m east-west by 5.5m north-south. The western building, measuring 10m by 3.5m internally, was linked by a doorway, later blocked, to the eastern building which, though of similar width, only survives for 4m to the ends of its robbed walls. Five contiguous small yards and garden plots, defined by slight rubble walling, extend between the longhouses and up to 20m to their east, completing the 0.3ha extent of the settlement's farmyard area. Besides the surviving surface remains, this settlement is also recorded in medieval historical documents; c.AD 1200 it was described under the name `Breinegelou', and a reference dated 1283 states the settlement as held by `Reinbald de Brongelli'. By 1443, a reference to `Overabrongellol' implies that by then the settlement's `Brown Gelly' element had become shared with another settlement, possibly a deserted medieval settlement located across the valley, 300m to the north-east beyond this monument. The settlement's farmyard area is located in the north-east corner of an almost square enclosure of 1.75ha forming the regularly cultivated and manured infield of the settlement. The enclosure, measuring up to 133m north-south by 145m east-west, is defined by an earth-and-rubble wall up to 1.5m wide and 0.4m high, generally with an outer ditch up to 1m wide and 0.3m deep. Its western wall re-uses 110m of the eastern linear boundary from the earlier medieval phase and the infield encloses the southern part of the larger area of ridge-and-furrow whose limit that boundary had defined. The infield's south-west sector encloses the northern sector of the prehistoric enclosed hut circle settlement, robbing some hut circle and plot walls for the medieval walling, but refurbishing others and incorporating them into the edges and corners of three small cultivation plots of up to 0.2ha each. These plots subdivide the infield's south-west quarter and bear traces of cultivation ridging. A hut circle beside the infield's southern wall was rebuilt as a medieval ancillary building with coursed walling up to 2m wide and 1m high. The infield wall along this south-west quarter was converted into a distinctive stock-proof wall-type called a corn-ditch, visible as a rubble bank up to 1.75m wide and 0.75m high, faced on its outer side only by a vertical wall of coursed rubble, impeding stock from entering the infield. Its inner side was a more gently-sloping earthen bank, facilitating the removal of any stock that did cross the bank. A slight field bank also extends north from the infield, crossing the north-west part of the earlier cultivation ridges and ending on a network of small slight-walled plots. North-west of the infield, the settlement had a much larger outfield block, subject to less regular and less intensive cultivation and subdivided as a regular enclosed field system. The outfield occupies 7ha of a north-east lower slope of the Downs. It forms a sub-rectangular block up to 330m north-south by 245m east-west. Its southern side, the southern part of its western side and its surviving eastern side are defined by almost straight walls of heaped rubble, up to 1.25m wide and 0.5m high. An outer ditch, up to 1.2m wide and 0.25m deep, accompanies much of the southern and western walls. The rest of the outfield's western and northern sides are defined by a broad, flat- bottomed ditch up to 7m wide and 0.5m deep. The outfield is subdivided into twelve long narrow strips, 12m-20m wide, by north-south rubble walls up to 1.25m wide and 0.5m high. In its southern sector, the outfield contains disrupted fragments of earlier banks and the northern of the line of prehistoric hut circles described above. Elsewhere, the strips contain numerous small rubble mounds, up to 2m in diameter and 0.5m high but often much smaller. These mounds, called clearance cairns, contain surface stone and rubble from earlier features cleared in advance of the medieval cultivation. The outfield's eastern wall runs 7m-13m west of the northern end of the earlier medieval linear boundary. This eastern wall also extends 20m beyond the south-east corner of the outfield, ending near the infield's north-west corner, showing the integration of the infield-outfield layout and the maintenance of a through-route for stock to the pasture on the Higher Langdon spur. The outfield's north-east edge is crossed by medieval tin-miners' excavations, called streamworks, exploiting tin ore that had eroded from the parent rock and accumulated in the slight valley between the Downs and the spur to the north-east. The streamworks adjacent to the outfield exploited two portions of the valley floor, linked by a water-course, called a leat, draining water from the upper portion to supply it to the lower. The lower streamworks cover 0.9ha, extending at least 230m along the valley, its limit along each side marked by steep scarps, up to 2m high and 20m-70m apart. The excavated valley floor between the scarps contains groups of distinctive parallel linear spoil dumps. The dumps are either straight and parallel to the length of the overall streamworks, termed `Type B' streamworks, or curved at their upslope ends and straight at their tails, termed `Type C' streamworks. They are generally 3m-4m wide, 1m high and 20m- 40m long. Each linear dump lies alongside a water channel from one stage in the deposit's exploitation, the adjoining dump away from the valley midline being formed during the next stage when the water was channelled further out. A leat, up to 3m wide, supplying water to the upper end of these lower streamworks extends for 160m north-west up the floor of the valley, passing the northern ditch of the medieval outfield, to drain the lower end of the upper streamworks. The upper streamworks cover 0.4ha, extending along 160m of the slight upper valley. Similarly characterised by scarps along each side, up to 35m apart, its linear dumps are largely of the straight, Type B, form. Near the head of this streamworks is an earth-and-rubble dam fronting a sub-rectangular reservoir, 40m long by 20m wide, deriving from a late phase in the streamworks's operation. A further leat, 40m long, feeds water to the reservoir from the saddle of the hill to the north. These streamworks on the Brown Gelly Downs are the earliest historically- recorded tin workings on Bodmin Moor whose location may be positively identified, being specifically mentioned in the reference of AD 1283. A record of AD 1513 describes the bounds of the tin workings on the Downs, including the streamworks on this slope, giving their owner as one James or Jacob Ludgar. The building constructed in the western half of the deserted settlement's southern longhouse is considered to have been a dwelling and store associated with the operation of these streamworks. The building survives with coursed rubble walling, up to 1.3m wide and 1m high. Its sub-rectangular outer wall measures 11.5m east-west by 5m wide externally. The interior has two transverse partition walls, 0.6m apart, each leaving a doorway against the north wall, producing an eastern room, measuring 4.5m by 3m internally, and a western room, measuring 2.75m by 2.25m internally. The eastern room also has an external doorway in its north-east corner. The north-east scarp of the lower streamworks crosses the south-west corner of a medieval regular enclosed field system on the south-west slope of the broad spur projecting east from the Downs. The field system survives over 1.8ha, containing banks of earth-and-rubble, up to 2m wide and 0.5m high. The banks define a succession of shallow `S-shaped' strips, from 16m to 60m wide, running south to the foot of the slope from a common boundary about the 255m contour level, near the crest of the slope. Three such strips survive; others formerly extended the field system east along the slope to a deserted settlement beyond this monument on the southern slope of the spur but those strips have been effaced by recent pasture improvement. Each strip is divided into two plots, of 0.12ha-0.4ha, by a cross-bank. The western two strips share a common cross-bank running obliquely to their long axis while the eastern strip has a lower, transverse, cross-bank. The boundary between the eastern strip and the western two has a western ditch, up to 1.5m wide and 0.3m deep, considered to mark the former western limit of the field system, to which the western two strips were later added. The plots contain many clearance cairns, mostly up to 2m in diameter and 0.5m high, but the western strips contain two larger rubble mounds, up to 7.5m by 6.5m across and 0.5m high, hollowed about their centres. All modern post-and-wire fences, gates and gate fittings; the abandoned iron pasture-roller near the enclosed hut circle settlement, and the surfaces of the modern tracks across the lower streamworks and across the leat linking the lower and upper streamworks are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath these features, including walls and hedgebanks, is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Austin, D, Gerrard, G A M, Greeves, T A P, 'Cornish Archaeology' in Tin And Agriculture Landscape Archaeology In St Neot Parish, , Vol. 28, (1989), 5-251
Fleming, A, Ralph, N, 'Medieval Archaeology' in Medieval Settlement And Land Use On Holne Moor, Dartmoor, , Vol. 26, (1982), 101-137
Preston-Jones, A, Rose, P, 'Cornish Archaeology' in Medieval Cornwall, , Vol. 25, (1986), 135-185
Other
AM7 scheduling documentation for CO 415, 1955,
AM7 scheduling documentation for CO 415, 1955, consulted 1993
AM7 scheduling documentation for CO 415, consulted 1993
Amendments & Additions, Rose, P & Herring, P, Bodmin Moor, Cornwall. An Evaluation for the MPP, (1990)
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1985, Map 3, Site Plan, 1:1000
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1985, Map 3, Site Plan, 1:1000
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
Buxton, H.K., The Landscape History of Brown Gelly, Bodmin Moor, 1986, Unpubl. BA Disstn, Univ. Sheffield
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plot and field trace for SX 2073,
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plots and field traces for SX 1972-3 & SX 2072-3,
consulted 1993, Carter, A./Fletcher, M.J./RCHME, 1:2500 AP plots and field traces for SX1972-3 & SX 2072-3,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entries for PRN 12129 & 12632,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entries for PRN 1260.01-.02,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1230,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1230.01,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1230.02,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1230.39,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1231,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1232,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1247,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1247.02,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1248,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1260,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1388,
consulted 1993, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 1389,
consulted 1993, NMR, Vertical air photo No. RC8 BT 273, (1979)
Gerrard, G.A.M., The Early Cornish Tin Industry: An Arch. & Historical Survey, 1986, Unpubl. PhD thesis, St David's, Wales
Gerrard, GAM, Re. Item as earliest locatable historically-recorded streamworks, (1993)
Mrs Smith of Treburland Farm, Altarnun, Information on origin of bomb craters on East Moor, (1992)

National Grid Reference: SX 19990 72840

Map

Map
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