Wellingore village cross
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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This copy shows the entry on 16-Oct-2019 at 13:20:06.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- North Kesteven (District Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
- SK 98381 56794
Reasons for Designation
A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.
Wellingore village cross is a good example of the stepped base of a medieval standing cross. It is situated on a green on the north side of the village where limited disturbance of the area immediately surrounding the cross indicates that archaeological deposits relating to the monument's construction and use in this location are likely to survive intact. The cross has not been restored, and has continued in use as a public monument and amenity from medieval times to the present day.
The monument includes Wellingore village cross, a Grade II Listed standing
stone cross, located on a small green at the road junction in the northern
part of the village. The cross is of stepped form and is principally medieval
in date. The monument includes the base, comprising three steps and a socket-
stone, and a fragment of the shaft.
The cross is surrounded on the north, south and east sides by a layer of modern concrete about 0.16m wide. The base includes three steps, all square in plan, constructed of large rectangular slabs of limestone about 0.23m high and covering an area about 2.05m square. The top step is worn down in the middle of the north and south sides, and there is the stub of an iron fitting near the south western corner. On this step rests the socket-stone, a single limestone block measuring 0.87m square in section at the base and 0.58m in height. The sides of the stone are chamfered and the upper corners moulded. Into the socket-stone is set the shaft fragment, which is 0.3m square in section at the base and 1m high; the top has been shaped to a low point. There are deep vertical grooves in the north, south and east sides of the shaft, and one across the top. The steps, socket-stone and shaft are all medieval in date. The full height of the cross is about 2.3m.
The monument includes a 1m margin around the cross which is considered essential for the monument's support and preservation.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
'Kelly's Directory' in Kelly's Directory, (1909), 607
Davies, D S, 'Lincolnshire Notes and Queries' in Ancient Stone Crosses in Kesteven, , Vol. XII no.5, (1913), 149
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing