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Chawston Manor moated site and associated fishpond

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Chawston Manor moated site and associated fishpond

List entry Number: 1010114

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Bedford

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Wyboston, Chawston and Colesden

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 19-Oct-1990

Date of most recent amendment: 30-Nov-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 11555

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches, often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

Although partially damaged by drainage and landscaping, Chawston Manor remains a well-preserved example of a small rectangular moated site, with surviving features relating to water-management and evidence of a subsidiary enclosure. The silts within the ditches and the water-logged deposits in the fishpond will contain environmental and artefactual evidence related to the occupation of the site; and, despite some disturbance caused by later constructions, the island will retain the buried remains of earlier buildings. The major part of the western enclosure is undisturbed and will also retain buried archaeological features. Chawston Manor forms one of a pair of moated sites in the vicinity of Wyboston. This proximity will allow chronological and social comparisons between the two sites. Documentary evidence concerning the history of Chawston Manor moated site further enhances its importance.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

Chawston Manor lies to the east of the Great North Road approximately 1km to the north of the village of Roxton. The site is in a valley floor location just to the north of the South Brook close to its confluence with the River Great Ouse. The monument includes the remains of a medieval moated enclosure, and an associated fishpond and supply channel forming the south and west sides of a subsidiary enclosure. The principal moated enclosure in the eastern part of the monument is rectangular measuring some 56m north to south by 75m east to west, inclusive of the 8m wide dry surrounding moat. The inner edge of the moat has been the subject of recent garden landscaping along its southern and south eastern sides. Entrance to the island is provided by modern footbridges over the eastern and western arms of the moat. The surface of the island is raised 1m- 2m higher than the surrounding area. The interior is occupied by Chawston Manor, a Grade II Listed Building. The upstanding structure is excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath is included as it is thought likely to preserve remains of earlier buildings and features. The name Chawston Manor is identified with the site in records dating back to 1302, and early medieval pottery, including green-glazed Stamford Ware, has been found within the island to the north west of the manor building. A 0.2m high outer bank is visible along the northern arm of the moat extending some 2m from the ditch edge. On the south side of the moated enclosure a series of undulations between the moat and the road are thought to mark associated cultivation earthworks (ridge and furrow). A water-filled pond immediately south west of the moat is considered to be a related fishpond. The fishpond was connected to the south west corner of the moat by a leat visible as a slight hollow connecting the two features. The supply channel runs roughly north from the western end of the fishpond, on the same alignment as the western arm of the moated enclosure. A slight 2m wide bank is visible extending from midway along the eastern side of the supply channel to align with the external bank on the northern arm of the moat. The surface within the enclosure formed by this bank, the channel, the fishpond and the moat, is about 0.7m lower than the ground to the north. Chawston Manor, both bridges leading to the island, all fences, fence posts and the surfaces of paths are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Kennett, , Roxton: Chawston Manor, (1972)
Page, W, The Victoria History of the County of Bedfordshire, (1908)
Other
Aldsworth, F G, Ordnance Survey Record, (1968)
Notes with Map extract (SMR 475), Tebutt, C.F., Ordnance Survey, (1969)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 revision Source Date: 1968 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: TL 15121 56125

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1010114 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 17-Nov-2017 at 05:45:28.

End of official listing